Philosophical Transactions. For the months of April, May and June, 1714 - Part V.

September 7th, 2019

V. An account, or history, of the procuring the small pox by incision, or inoculation; as it has for some time been practised at Constantinople.

Being the extract of a letter from Emanuel Timonius, Oxon & Patav M.D. S.R.S. dated at Constantinople, December, 1713.

Communicated to the Royal Society by John Woodward, M.D. Prosef. Med. Gresh and S.R.S.1

The writer of this ingenious discourse observes, in the first place, that the Circassians, Georgians, and other Asiaticks, have introduc'd this practice of procuring the small-pox by a sort of inoculation, for about the space of forty years, among the Turks and others at Constantinople.

That altho' at first the more prudent were very cautious in the use of this practice; yet the happy success it has been found to have in thousands of subjects for these eight years past, has now put it out of all suspicion and doubt; since the operation having been perform'd on persons of all ages, sexes, and different temperaments, and even in the worst constitution of the air, yet none have been found to die of the small-pox; when at the same time it was very mortal when it seized the patient the common way, of which half the affected dy'd. This he attests upon his own observation.

Next he observes, they that have this inoculation practiced upon them, are subject to very slight symptoms, some being scarce sensible they are ill or sick; and what is valued by the fair, it never leaves any scars or pits in the face.

The method of operation is thus. Choice being made of a proper contagion, the matter of the pustules is to be communicated to the person proposed to take the infection; whence it has, metaphorically, the name of the insition or inoculation. For this purpose they make choice of some boy, or young lad, of a sound healthy temperament, that is seized with the common small-pox (of the distinct, not flux sort) on the twelfth or thirteenth day from the beginning of his sickness; they with a needle prick the tubercles (chiefly those on the shins and hams) and press out the matter coming from them into some convenient to wash and clean the vessel first with warm water; a convenient quantity of this matter being thus collected, is to be stop'd close, and kept warm in the bosom of the person that carries it, and, as soon as may be, brought to the place of the expecting future patient.

The patient therefore being in a warm chamber, the operator is to make several little wounds with a needle, in one, or two or more places of the skin, till some drops of blood follow and immediately drop out some drops of the matter in the glass, and mix it well with the blood issuing out; one drop of the matter is sufficient for each place prick'd. These punctures are made indifferently in any of the fleshy parts, but succeed best in the muscles of the arm or radius. The needle is to be a three-edg'd surgeon's needle; it may likewise be perform'd with a lancet; the custom is to run the needle transverse, and rip up the skin a little, that there may be a convenient dividing of the part, and the mixing of the matter with the blood more easily perform'd; which is done, either with a blunt stile, or an ear-picker; the wound is cover'd with half a walnut-shell, or the like concave vessel, and bound over, that the matter be not rub'd off by the garments; which is all removed in a few hours. The patient is to take care of his diet. In this place the custom is to abstain wholly from flesh and broath for 20 or 25 days.

This operation is perform'd, either in the beginning of the winter, or in the spring.

Some, for caution, order the matter to be brought from the sick by a third person, lest any infection should be convey'd by the cloaths of the operator; but this is not material.

As to the process of this matter, in respect of the idiosyncrasie; the small-pox begins to appear sooner in some than in others, in some with greater, in others with lesser symptoms; but with happy success in all. In this place the efflorescence commonly begins at the end of the seventh day, which seems to favour the doctrin of crises.

It was observ'd, in a year when the common small-pox was very mortal, that those by incision were also attended with greater symptoms. Of 50 persons, who had the incision made upon them almost in the same day, four were found in whome the eruption was too sudden, the tubercles more, and the symptoms worse. There was some suspicion, that these four had caught the common small pox before the incision was made. It is enough for our present purpose, that there was not one but recovered after the incision; in those four the small-pox came near the confluent sort. At other times the inoculated are distinct, few and scatter'd; commonly 10 or 20 break out; here and there one has but 2 or 3, few have 100; there are some in whom no pustule rises, but in the places where the incision was made, which swell up into purulent tubercles; yet these have never had the small-pox afterwards in their whole lives; tho' they have cohabited with persons having it.

It is to be noted, that a no small quantity of matter runs for several days, from the place of the incision.

The pocks arising from this operation are dry'd up in a short time, and fall off, partly in thin skins, and partly contrary to the common sort, vanish by an insensible wasting.

The matter is hardly a thick pus, as in the common, but a thinner kind of sanies; whence they rarely pit, except at the place of the incision, where the cicatrices left are not to be worn out by time, and whose matter comes near the nature of pus.

If an aposteme breaks out in any (which infants are most subject to) yet there is nothing to be fear'd, for it is safely heal'd by suppuration. If any other symptom happens, 'tis easily cur'd by the common remedies.

Observe, they scarce ever make use of the matter of the incisious pox for a new incision. If this inoculation be made on persons who have before had the small pox, they find no alteration and the places prick'd presently dry up; except in an ill habit of the body, where possiby a slight inflammation and exulceration may happen for a few days.

To this time, he says, I have known but one boy, on whom the operation was perform'd, and yet he had not the small-pox, but without any mischief; and some months after catching the common sort, he did very well, it is to be observ'd, that the places of the incision did not swell. I suspect this child prevented the insertion of the matter, for he strugled very much under the operation, and there wanted help to hold him still. The matter to be inserted will keep in the glass very well for 12 hours. He goes on.

I have never observ'd any mischievous accident from this incision hitherto; and altho' such reports have been sometimes spread among the vulgar, yet having gone on purpose to the houses whence such rumors have arisen, I have found the whole to be absolutely false.

It is now eight years since I have been an eye-witness of these operations; and to give a greater proof of the sedulity I have used in this disquisition, I shall relate two histories.

There was, in a certain family, a boy of 3 years old, afflicted with the falling-sickness, the king's-evil, an hereditary pox, and a long marasmus. The parents were desirous to have the incision made upon him; the small-pox were thrown off with ease; about the 40th day he dy'd of this marasine. In another family, a girl of 3 years old, troubled with the like fits, strumous, attended with hereditary lues, and labouring under a colliquative loosness for three months. The operation was peform'd on this child; she came off very well of the small-pox, which was all over the 15th day; on the 32d she dy'd of her loosness, which had never left her the whole time.

But it is true, I never maintain'd the inoculation as a panacea, or cure for all diseases; nor do I think it proper to be attempted on persons like to die. Some more quicksighted, imagin'd these two children were, as useless shades sent to Charon by any means that could be made use of. If I could have collected any more concerning this matter, I should have imparted it candidly.

The rest of Dr. Timone's letter contains his reasons for this method of practice; which being the Ætiological part, is publish'd in his own words, as follows.


Contagium variolarum per puris insusuionem propagari haud cguidam mirabitar qui aesulapii templum vel d primo limine salutavit, & fermentationis doctrinam subodoraius est; nex obscurior est infitionis modus, qudm panificium, aut ars cerevisiaria, obsurior est infitionis modus, qudm panificium, aut ars cerevisiaria, in qurbus ex admixto fermento massa fermentanda turgescunt; conciliato nimirum mota intestino minimarum particularum principiis active pollentium. si quis quarit interium cur variola periculosa alioquin & persape lethales, ex insitione sine ullo periculo excludantur. dico; variola communes vel concurrente prava aliqua speciali aeris diathesi suscitantur, vel ab essuviis a varioloso corpore emanatious per contagium propagantur. primus casus in paucis individuis accidit, & concurrente quidem vel insigni cacochymia, vel saltem variolos seminii in talibus individuis latitantis acerrima exaltatione; secundus casus communissimus est. In primo casu miasma malignum aereum, in secundo virulenta contagii corpuscula indolis (probabiliter) salino-sulphurca sed specificam fracedinem seu ranciditatem nacta statim ac per respirationem hauriuntur spiritus ipsos, & labe quidem teterrima inficiunt; subsequenter auiem massam sanguineam & lympham vitiarimanifestum est; Spiritus statim infici rationi consentaneum est, tum quia in fontes spirituum, cor scilicet & cerebrum, statim ingressum habent virulentem aporria, tum ratione analogismi inter miasmata & effluvia ista ipsosque spiritus, cum utraque spiritutuoso-aerea textura sint. Deducitur etiam cita & prava spirituum infectio á tot tantisque norvosi systematis symptomatibusque, qua malas plermque comitantur variolas, & pracipué á convulsionibus epilepticis qua infantibus accidunt ipso momento, quo varioloso inficiuntur contagio multo antequam febris illos corripiat. Massam autem sanguineam inquinari prater febrem purulenta tuberculorum exclusio testatur. Lympha veró vitiata fidem faciunt glandularnm in faucibus tumor, screatus, & enormis multoties ptyalismus. Inter bac circularis etiam sequitur noxa. Sed pracipué sanguinis particula ab indebita spiritnum irradiatione in plures ataxias & anomalias perducuntur. Duobus tamen potissplures ataxias & anomalias perducuntur. Duobus tamen potissmum modis in variolis communibus mortem contingere observavi.

Primus est quando paucis erumpentibus variolis, & tardé ad maturitatem procedentibus, mas alia oboriuntur symptomata; secuudus quando nimia tuberculorum copia cadaverosam putredinem inducit. In primo casu maligna vulgo dicuntur variola; causa autem est vel nimia fusio & dissolutio massasanguinea, val ejusdem coagulatio & grumescentia. Si enim impetus spirituum explosivus justo plus augeatur, particula massa sanguinea nimium ad invicem atteruntur, comminuuntur, & tenuissimas nancisuntur acrotitas; sanguis in boc statu sollertis nature mechanismum eludit, cumque nil fœculentioris in glandulis secretoriis cribrisque deponat, œconomia animalis functionibus requisitas filtrationes & transcolationes celebrari baud patirur; improportionata eternim est figura particularum liquidi ad configurationem pororum in tuhulis & colaioriis rations fuhtilitatis nimia filtratione enim defacarentur particula sanguinis si naturalem servarent schcmatismum & molem; hinc dicitur pepsim fieri per incrassationem. Prater hoc cslritas ipsa transius sanguinis in causa est ut nihil deponatur in colatcriis. Torrens ubi nimio impetu & pracipiti cursu fertur aquas iurbidas desacari haud patitur; quia vis centripeta gravitatem admixti terrei sequeus superaturá fortiorum pulsoria virtute aquororum globulorum rapide reenitum; virsus enim fortis, vcrbi gratia, ut unum non poterit lineam perpendicularem describere ubi cirtus fortis ut duo ad lineam horizontaem potrudit sic etiam haud pluit vent o flante intensissimo; eadem geometrica proportione (probabiliter loqundo) sanginis particula aucto ab effranibus spirilus motu, tubulos colitorios preterfluunt nullâ factâ facum depositione. Hac probabilia fiunt á summa pulsûs celeritate, febre intensissima, sudore nullo, & urina cruda. E contra quandoque contingit ut ab acutis, & scindentibus deleterii fermenti particulis frangatur, corrodatur, vel saltem relaxetur elater spirituum; elanguscente igitur spirituum motu torpidiores etiam hebetioresque siunt sanguinis lymphaque particula; igitur dum in labyrinthais tubulorum anfractibus moram indebitam contrabunt alias turmatim invicem complicari, alias autem, congestione factâ, super alias incidere, & diverso ad invicem superficierum suarum contactud naturali configuratione desciscere, & novias induere angulorum dimensiones necesse est. Sic igitur diversa ab illa, quam superius narraviumus, sigerarum ad tubulorum meatus improportione, paritamen calamitatis eventu dadalea natura machinationes irritas fieri contingit. Hac probabilia fiunt á pulsu tardo & raro ac debris carentia quandoque in summa malignitate observatis, paucis & tardé erumpentibus voriolarum pustulis. Ulterius é trepidatoria, su sulsultoria ac tumultuosa furentium spirituum irradiatione inaqualis eodem tempore in diversis partibus masse sanguinea, & arteriarum etiam venarumque contingere potest impulsus. Sive igitur fibrilla alique (ul quidem volunt) reperiantur in sunguine, scu sbili nondum bene assimilati sint portiones usibus peculiaribus dicata; probabiliter istarum motum turbari contingit; bas enim in circulatorio motu secundum longitudinem suam naturaliter moveri necesse est; ab inaquali autem pressione dicta rectilineam siquram perdere, & in spiras ac semicirculos crispari coguntur; bas igitur sic contortas transversaliter postmodum in circulatione raptari, ad invicem implicatas convolvi, &, ramosis schematibus obortis, racematim adeo conglobari necesse est, ut in majusculos tandem grumos coalescant, sive demum fibrilla illa non dentu, certé cujuscumque figura sint massa sanguinea particule, illas á naturali desciscere situatione ex hac motûs inaqualitate contingit; confusa igitur particula ista & ad invicem implicata statim vehiculi sui, seri scilicet globulis per expressionem á suo contubernio explosis, majorem, ratione molis aucta gravitatem nanciscuntur, ideoque impulsiva circulatoria facultatis vim superant; has igitur hîc illic resitare ac stagnare necesse est, prout in hoc velillo loco prima mutua cohasio forte contigerit; hinc livida stigmata, & simul (quod sape observavi in variolis cum petechiis erumpentibus) frequens sequitur mictus, quo limpidissimum serum in magna copia excluditur. En fusio, & coagulatio. Hinc mimmnon est car moriantur aliqui in variolis cum petechiis, convulsionibus syncope, vigiliis nimiis, emorrhegiis, delirio, vomitibus, enormibus, dysenteriis, &c. quamvis haud multa pustularum putrilagine persundantur; in stygium enim veluti characterismum variolarum fermentum multoties evehitur, ita ut quamvis haud magnam crasss puris copiam progignere mala modis vel explicatis vel aliis consimilibus communicare possit, sicque mortem inferre; & hoc ante undecimum plerumque. Veniamurs nunc ad secundum modum. Diversaenim aliquando contingit pernicies & longé alterius generis tragœdia; quamvis enim absint illa symptomata, nimia tamen puris, materia scilicet cadaverisata, copia corpus obruniturpus autem generari probabile est quando sulphureis oleosisque massa sanguinea particulis in fracedine & fusione constitutis acido-salinaram particularum coaffusio contingit. Huic asserto facem accdendunt innumera chymica experimenta quibus manifesté edocemur solutionibus pinguium sulphureorum per alkalia factis acido quolibet coaffuso statim massam albicantis coloris emergere. Multoties igitur miasma seu fermentum variolarum per respirationem haustum ratione indolis propria acerrime & fortassis septica tales in massam sanguineam particularum acido-salinarum & oleoso-sulphurearum producere potest combinationes, ut non seminia solum variolarum, qua omnibus individuis (mole tamen minima) á nativitate indita sunt, agitentr, actuentur, & in purulentam abeant putrilaginem, sed massa, ipsa sanguinea tota acorem contrabat, & motu quodam corruptorio putrescat & cadaverisetur. Sic igitur, incendio veluti coborto, ulterius furere fermentescentes particulas contingit, quam variolosis seminiis per despumitonem eliminandis opus sit; hic motus non est depuratorius heterogeneis secernendis inserviens, sed destructivus & corruptoris, fermento nempe massam totam superante & invertente; fracidis scilicet rebellibusque particulis victoria potitis, & omnes alias in sua castra migrare cogentibus. Hoc manifeste observamus in variis potulentis, in quibus fermentatione aliquando excitatá, motus succedit corruptivus liquores totaliter vitians; hinc videmus aliquos quamvis suprarecensitis symptomatibus immunes, immenso tamen, ut ita dicam, putredinis oceano suffocatos; et hoe periculum usque ad vig simum secundum protrabitar. Ultimo loco considerandum solida etiam & nobiliores partes in hisce casibus pessimé affici, & in spasmos inordinatos fieri; variis horum distortionibus tubulorum meatus vitiari, at functionum munera depravari necesse est; ecce igitur continentia, contenta, & impetum facientia, quorum triamviratu bumani corporis respublica regitur, una eademque ruina ut plurimum involuta; mirabiturne quispiammalorum indea iliadem in hominis perniciem pullulare? Observandum ulterius multis, qui peste laboraverint, eommunibus variolis etiam post annum correptis bubones eosdem intumunisse, qui antea in peste eruperant; nonne hoc etiam summam malignitatem testatur. Insitionem modo ad rationis trutinam revocemus. At hercule longe aliter in hoc contagionis modo rem procedere quis est qui non fateatur? Orimum enim spiritus nullatenus infici manifestum est; deinde non lympha, non sanguini labes illa teterrima inuritur, non solidis vitium aliquod communieator. Hinc symptomata omnia levia, nulla pessima, nulli infantibus epileptici insultus. Contagionis enim hujusce fermentum non spiritale, non aereum & acutum est, sed humorale, iners, ac pigrum; venena autem quo subtiliora eo pejora; ratione igitar improportionis nulla inter fermentum hoc & spiritus esse poterit lucta. Pus equidem variolarum in ipsa substantia sanguini immediaté infusum statim in largum veluti pelagus exceptum diluitur, involvitur, absorbetur, obtunditur; sic illud mitescit, sic in mansuetiorem indolem cicuratur. Contagiosa ista particula sanguinem ingressa statim sibi congeneres variolosi seminii particulas sanguini à nativitate inditas inveniunt; iis igitur confermentescunt, sed invicem combinata ac complexa baud amplius sui juris sunt ut ulteriores excitent turbas, regiam vita petant, spirituum thesauros diripiant; nammutuis compedibus constricta fixantur, pracipitantur, crassioresque & hebetiores fiunt, quam antea fuerint. Statim igitur volubilioribus aquearum particularum globulis tamquam aptis vehiculis superincambentes, sanguinis motu à cetro ad peripheriam tendente, secundo veluti amne, ad ambitum corporis protruduntur, eliminantur. Nonne manifestè videmus haud pus generari in insititiis variolis, sed saniosam, dilutiorem videlicet aqueamque in insititiis variolis, sed saniosam, dilutiorem videlicet aqueamque magis materiam? Nonne ex hoc phanomeno palam est acido-salinas fermenti contagiosi particulas haud oleosas passim sanguinis particulas in cadaverosam purulentiam pervertere, sed blandioribus potius lavioribusque aqueis particulis easdem dilutas & saturatas foras asportari? Ex negatione fovearum & cicatricum nonne manifestum est acres, aculeatas, pungentes & corresivas salini fermenti particulas à balsamicis statim sanguinis globulis obtundi, spiculis suis orbari, & hebetiori figura modificatas, vi veluti mochlica, extra propellia? Integra interim servatur massa sanguinea textura, inviolata consistentia. Nullam hiî vides fusionem, nullam grumescentiam, nullum solummodo sanguis fermentescit, quantum impuro à puri consortio separando, ac per despumationem extrudendo satis est. In hoc fermentationis motu solum per undulationem quandam leviter aliquando afficiuntur spiritus, lympha, & solida partes, & figua ad ista contagii particula perveniunt, certè (quod insitionis adumbrat metaphora) non nisi sylvestri acrimonia privata, ac veluti dulcificata pervenire possunt. Hac tenuitatis mea satis conscius haud praficta fronte obtrudo; non me latet longè meliora emanatura ab illis, queis meliore luto finxit pracoria titan; in historica tamen insitionis hujusce narratione aliquatenus me bene meritum spero.

Censtantinopoli, Anno 1713.
Mense Decembre.

Emanuel Timonius, Constantinopolitanus. In Universitatibus Oxoniensi & patavina Philosophiæ & Medicinæ Doctor.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 72).

  1. Titled in the contents page as follows, A letter from Emanuel Timone, Philos. & Med. D. in Univers. Oxon. & Patav. S.R.S. containing the method of inoculating the small pox; practis'd with success at Constantinople, &c. []

The maid.

August 24th, 2019

While sitting naked at the kitchen table in their hotel suite she shudders knowing that she heard him correctly.

"It's fine, the maid can come in."

She cast her eyes down at the plate on the table in front of her as a few second excuse to not make eye contact.

Quickly she succumbs to the fact that she wouldn't be allowed any clothes. Still, she searches for something to say that would save her some humiliation but also not land her in actual trouble. Punishment is heavy for attempts at negotiation and hardship is ideal to being in trouble.

Instantly, she becomes aware of the room's temperature and her body betrays her with gifts of hard nipples and goose bumps. She owns nothing in this world which includes her body, and her body will gladly help in her exposure for its Master. She has a lot of these 'out of body' experiences where her mind may hesitate, but she physically moves forward in the direction of what would be perceived as her opposite interest. In fact, the last time that this occurred was she was kicked out of the car in the rain forest and immediately walked into bushes of tropical nettle. For added humiliation, she often won't even realize that she's wet until her cunt is leaking down her legs. This time on the hotel chair is not any different or at all significant to the people in the room. Despite knowing this she is still visibly bothered but says nothing. Both time and experience have shown that this will be a fond memory, so why ruin it?

Even so... she loses her appetite and the salmon that looked so good a moment ago becomes cold. Master encourages her to eat and his other slave kindly offers to make her more comfortable by undressing too. Nudity is mandatory in her Master's home and she's been naked in front of a countless amount of people, both online and in person within multiple countries. Actually, when they met for the first time he had her remove her dress in the parking lot of the airport. So why did this time bother her so intensely? Her Master noticing her nerves asks her as much. After all, his pleasure is paramount and she is obeying the command. Conflicted and unable to come up with an answer she mumbles an 'I don't know'. On cue the maid turns on the vacuum and he laughs at the anxious slave girl jumping naked in her seat. Her shoulders hunch down in an attempt for her to look as small as she feels. Has clothing always connoted power and she just never cared?

He moves them out of the kitchen and into the bedroom. In doing so, she navigates around the maid and they make eye contact with one another. She blushes while noticing that the suite door is open, and therefore exposing her naked body to the rest of the hotel.

As instructed she gets into his bed on all fours with her face down-ass up. Flustered and sweating she listens to the characteristically calming sounds of him playing with his other girl and remembers her training to breath. She stays completely still in an effort to become dehumanized and solely an ass. He asks for the hairbrush and her stomach drops, now knowing that the maid's show is just starting. Indistinguishable cries resonate from the pillow matching the twitching protest her body is performing. The pain from the hairbrush is hard, abrupt, stingy, and lingers. He has been kind enough to beat her with an array of objects, and yet somehow this implement is one of the hardest to take. Panic intensifies due to her intense desire to perform well in front of housekeeping. One thump cracks down on her ass and she squirms buckling her knees in poor form. This is displeasing and he swings again, but harder which makes her scream out when the brush cracks against her skin. Racing inside she tries to lean into the pain and focus less on the sounds of the room being cleaned...then he hits her ass again. The ever desperate whining sounds leave her mouth in the form of 'pleases' and 'it hurts'. The intolerable noise she makes is met with a threat to have the maid take part in her beating if she continues.

What if the maid did help punish her? She would certainly deserve it. Maybe in the cleaning cart and underneath the stack of fresh towels there is a compartment with painful whipping elements to leave out in rooms. Necessarily if she were good at punishing bad girls then her Master would also want to sexually exploit the useful cleaning girl. Would the slave then have to finish cleaning the hotel rooms with a bruised ass while her Master has a threesome? She'd better clean the rooms naked and if it pleased him then shouldn't she beg for this arrangement for the rest of their stay?

A final hard blow breaks her stream of horny thoughts. By the time her ass is red and sore the cleaning is done and it's the three of them once again. The intensity of laying in his arms and looking into his eyes after a humiliating beating overwhelms her with adoration. After a moment of laying with him he sends her off to the store for groceries. Gleefully she walks out of the hotel room rubbing her tender ass and still in a daze. Looking up and down the long hallway she decides to use the order to avoid the maid.

Bet your pierogies I'm Polish!

August 12th, 2019

But first, I went to Minsk and the only pictures I took are of cats and the library.


I took a solo trip to the National Library of Belarus, thinking that I would get a good view from the city on the top level of that monstrosity. After purchasing a day pass library card and wondering around the few rows of book shelves that they have, I began to wonder how exactly one gets on top of the rhombicuboctahedron, spoiler - not from the library. I found this out by questioning the librarians who, angrily directed me towards the exit. The exit, which was heavily secured by a guard who yanked my library card from me. So, it turns out that the library only exists on the first few floors and the rest of the building (including the observation deck and restaurant) is separate. Well played, Minsk.


Hannah humored me by going with me to the Minsk Cat Museum, despite the smell of litter boxes six floors down from the entrance. We were worried the "museum" was going to be an old women charging an entrance fee to see her collection of 20 cats. Well, it's not a museum by any definition of the word, but its also not someone's house. The people who run it seem to take good care of the cats and its better than a shelter; however, it smelled acidic and the decoration was appalling. You have your choice between playing with cats in either a fully committed cat lady like room (complete with dusty unmatched furniture), or for some reason a harry potter themed room. Who am I to judge, maybe this is where the great harry potter fan fiction writers of the world gather for inspurration.

I armed this little guy in honor of Ignatius Reilly.


The internets always favorite - catinabox. Not sure where they dug up the reading material or cat jenga game.


This was the view from inside the museum and pussible exhibit.


Sup cat? I like your paws.



Oh right, this is the last picture I took in Minsk - he likes the cok.


On to Poland!1


I asked our first cab driver about the building below, he responded - "a gift from Stalin, do I need to say more?"



Kościół Świętego Krzyża or Holy Cross Church.
Sursum Corda - lift up your hearts.



The interior is less ornate then I've seen in most European churches. Throughout history this church has been bombed to shit and seen a handful of uprisings. I attempted to get a picture of the alter but a no picture rule is enforced.



Check out the sweet side car action. If I had a side car, I would keep a goose inside of it and then have a smaller side car for his bread storage.





I always imagined Europe would look like a fairy tale, but I never thought I would be living in one. Cringe over.


The long awaited for ice cream. Ice cream...which I would later come to regret.2


I was exploring by myself one day and ended up at the Warsaw Insurgents Cemetery. The park is beautiful to walk through, but I may be a little bias after finding my family name on one of the pillars. See, I told you I'm Polish. My last name isint at all common in the states, and outside of my immediate family of seven people, I never met another Cichocki.3




The monument is named the Fallen Unconquerable, and buried underneath are ashes from the victims of the Warsaw Uprising.


View from the back.


The next three pictures are from the Hala Mirowska market. I trust people who understand how to please my ocd with appropriately stacked eggs.




A teapot fit for a bear!


So, this is Warsaw's "fast train". I boarded it thinking that it was similar to a bullet train in Japan - see I'm even holding on. It's not though. The train is quicker than a buss and slower then the metro.




Serious cat doing serious cat business.


La Playa music bar in Warsaw. The only reason I'm leaving this shitty picture in the post, is so that I can remember the time that Master ordered me to grab this waitress and bring her over. So, I dragged her by her arm to our table, while explaining that we've been waiting and needed service. Master started listing drinks and then she abruptly blurted out, "I don't work here" (suspicious though, she was wearing the clubs tshirt and I saw her carrying a tray)...


Me touching the king. Check out the dumb instagram bitch angle I got going.


The E.Wedel Chocolate Lounge.


I didn't think she could get any cuter, then she got a tiny hat!



Pictures of people taking pictures.


Recently, I've been asked "what happened to the bad ass Nicole I knew" - well here I am! Sitting on a cigar smoking bear. Where the hell are you?




I love Poland.

  1. The pictures in this post are not in chronological order, so if that bothers you then suck it because this is []
  2. Master, gave us the option between cake in a cafe or ice cream. We choose ice cream of poorer quality than we're used to. The quality was unbeknownst to us at the time of choosing and our choice was not quickly forgotten. Tough decisions out here. []
  3. My brothers and I have a long standing joke that when someone in our family does something stupid its because they have a case of the Cichockidous. I hope that the Cichockis on the pillar would be able to appreciate the joke. []

Checking in

July 28th, 2019

I'm alive and well.1

Well, I think good as I can be after being enslaved for almost an entire year. To be completely honest, anyone who tells you this lifestyle is easy, isin't really doing it. Everything I thought I knew about the world (including "who I was") has been smashed and I'm looking forward to seeing what survives the breakage, if anything. I live(d) by the policy that anything worth doing is hard, and on my worst days that thought pushes me to walk through the fire to be a better slave and person.2

It's of course not all bad, nothing ever is! In the spirit of never taking myself too seriously, below are pictures of me hugging things from all over the world.


Ice cream cone in Kiev! I'm not allowed really allowed to eat ice cream3, which is hard because its my favorite. Master stopped at this great ice cream shop in Budapest and got two cones for him and Hannah. I walked next to them, watching while they stopped on almost every corner to snowball each others ice cream and moan about how good it was. Eventually, we circled the block and made it back to the ice cream store where Master kindly got me a cone. We walked out of the store and I got one lick in before this woman was chasing after us with his hat that I forgot in the store. I looked at the hat, then looked at my ice cream, then up at Master and I knew. I handed over the cone and he handed it to the trash can.


Lions in Warsaw! It's been a life long dream of mine to visit my brethren in Poland and it did not disappoint. My brothers and I would watch Rick Steve's Europe - Poland and make fun of our people. I cannot wait to go back, kind of shitty that I got a ticket for incorrectly using the metro but what a souvenir. Also, we finally found a good club.


Giant Bear in Minsk! Really not sure what the fuck is going on with the clubs in Minsk - the most advertised and supposed hottest club had a giant dirty stuffed bear in it. I was wearing a tail butt plug and the bouncer chased me in a circle trying to touch it. Also, the women's bathroom consisted of just a hole in the ground (because peeing with a butt plug and stockings is too easy). The adventure continues!


Ignác Darányi in Budapest! True, I'm not hugging him but the sentiment is there.4

That's all for now. Try to be good to each other.

  1. Sorry to disappoint everyone who thinks that I'm being held against my will in a cult. Now that I've addressed it, you'll have to find some other drama to entertain yourselves with. Or maybe this is being written by a robot composed of pale parts... []
  2. There is no such thing as a clean getaway. []
  3. Or any type of dairy. If you're like me and plagued with acne, then might I suggest no longer eating dairy or sweets. It's difficult to do (especially if no one is behind you with a whip), but eliminating those items from my diet has really cleared up my skin. []
  4. Liosh the waiter is also nearby and ready to judge you. []


July 23rd, 2019

Deep in the rain forest, below the canopy of trees, and past any human exploration, a wooden hut sits. From the outside, the hut looks like a puzzle a child smashed together. The logs composing the cabin are from different species of trees and none of the sides are even. The hut has four tall walls, making one large room with a fireplace opposite from the door. Three of the four walls have shelves from floor to ceiling, each shelf varying in both size and depth. Sitting the shelves are books, trunks, vases, jars, and pitchers. Most of the vessels are intact, but with a brown residue on the side. While the day passes, various tropical birds have come to perch on what would be the windows. The windows look like they are holes plied from the walls as an after thought, being without glass and uniform. A dug out ditch sits behind the structure, filling with rainwater that pours from the Costa Rican clouds.

Suddenly, the ground starts shaking which causes the birds to become excited, they each sing their unique song, making a kind of paradise choir. A happy six foot brown bear swings open the door, drops down his satchels of cocoa and coffee beans, which causes the top of layer of the days find to fall out and hit the ground hard. He ignores the beans bouncing on the floor like pebbles, and runs to greets the brightly colored birds that make up his window sill. His golden highlights shine in the sun against his brown fur, he slips off the dirty wet leaves that cover his paws, and then the straw hat. It's not just chocolate and coffee beans that he has, but containers full of berries, mushrooms, fruit, and seeds. He knows what each flock likes and passes out the food accordingly. While they peck on their snack, he opens a trunk and has a paw full of melted chocolate. After a long day for the bear, it's quite a happy scene in the bottom of the rain forest.

While they feast, the discussion turns towards new food that the birds have scouted. The bear takes out a book made out of dried leaves and tube of mud that acts a pencil to map out where he can next scavenge. The birds land on his soft and wide shoulders to comment, "more to the left, straight from there, swim through that opening, be careful its high there." They scout the places for food and he scavenges to bring them back the good stuff. Since he is bigger than almost any of the animals that make up this part of the jungle, he can try various foods without getting dying. It's only been the case that a few times he got so sick that he couldn't leave the hut. Once because he ate a type of mushroom that made him ill, and unable to get back home. He spent a few days passed out next to a waterfall that sprayed his face while he lay covered in his own vomit. The other time was when he first discovered coffee beans. He spent the afternoon eating every bean he could find, and spent the next three days moaning at home, unable to move. The moaning was so loud that the monkeys eventually sent a few guys rub his belly.

The process of him trying new food as a guinea bear has created a trade economy within the lower layers of the forest. When the monkeys came to tend to his sickness, they introduced the bear to mapping with mud. He can climb banana trees just as good as them, but can carry three times the load on his back. The alligators helped him with his trench foot by teaching him how to make shoes out of leaves, and in turn they get more variance in their diet. The scariest and smallest of creatures have all come to the bear in need of help.

There are times when the animals come and he hasn't been home for days. During these times, the jungle is filled with search parties. He's always found, snoring and passed out alone in a cave, on a tree, or on a dirt bed, and once on the edge of a cliff. When he awakes, he has no memory of falling asleep or even being tired. In fact, he never feels tired but involuntarily slumbers. The bear wished this didn't happen to him, but nor he or anyone else knows another bear or how to get another one. In fact, no one even knows how he got to the jungle in the first place....

The adventure of Goosey boy.

June 13th, 2019

Once upon a time, a good goose named Goosey left his home in Germany to meet someone who could tell him how make golden eggs.

You see, he finished his bread before the end of Aesop's ill fated fable.

His first stop was a Hungarian shop, and with no such luck he continued on in search of his golden treasure.


Goosey made good friends who had stale bread and promised to help him along the way.


The locals laughed when they were asked about knowing of any such golden eggs.
"Budapest really isin't the place for your silly fabled eggs."


He was a sad goose when he returned home with his friends. They told him not to lose hope for Easter was close, and the flat Easter bunny would know where to find the best eggs.

At long last, he found a treasured egg rainbow...but something wasn't quite right. The eggs cracked and just like that he was back to his grand adventure.


Lovage croaked that everyone knows that Belgrade had the best geese. Surely there he should gander to find the golden prize.


A melancholy Goosey searched in Serbia without finding a way. He vowed to forget his quest and never mind these stupid eggs.


A most perfect wooden egg lay in wait for him at home! Goosey fell in love at first sight, and now he sits and holds his egg without any thought to a better day.


Contrasting Churches.

June 11th, 2019

With spending so much time in church during my youth, you'd think I would have seen a few notable places to worship.1

I hadn't seen a memorable church until traveling throughout Europe with Master's harem. Below is the best of the churches I've seen thus far and announced in the order in which I saw them.

St. Johann Nepomuk (Asam Church) in Munich, Germany



Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade, Serbia (world's largest Orthodox church in Southeastern Europe)2





The Dormition of the Theotokos Cathedral (Assumption Cathedral) in Cluj, Romania






If only the church he was holding had a smaller statue of him holding a smaller statue of the church...

Romanian wooden churches from the 18th and 17th centuries (respectively), also in Cluj3








Honestly, my favorite has been the wooden churches of Cluj. The lack of gold and statues was refreshing, and the depictions of holy events aren't at all pretentious. It may be the protestant in me but the simplicity is preferred. Exploring churches has become one of my favorite parts of traveling and no church has burned down upon my entrance.4

  1. Raised by a self proclaimed "christian mother", I was forced to go to church every Sunday and three times a week during holy week. In addition to that, I also had Sunday school after church, confirmation class (studyin my boy, Martin Luther's, small catechism) and youth group on weekends. Naturally, I became youth group president and was shortly thereafter accused of being the devil. All was not lost though, because I became very close with my longest and best friend, Bianca. Saturday nights were filled with partying and smoking weed to be up in time for church on Sunday. To quote her toast from the last time we drank together, "shots for pastor!" []
  2. I was excited to see this church at first but its so poorly over done. It's like they were overwhelmed by deciding they were going to be the biggest church, so then they covered everything in gold and poorly colored blocky paintings of Jesus. []
  3. Located at the Ethnographic Park Romulus Vuia. []
  4. This is a call back to when my grandma would take me to Catholic church service. She barely ever attended church, but when she did she would take the time to warn me about the possibility of her entrance causing the church to burn down. My earliest memory of this was when I was six, but she used that line almost every time we went. []

Lost Lovage.

June 10th, 2019

So, sometime ago my dad and uncle stood outside of my apartment and pounded while shouting about my grandma being in the hospital from falling. The apartment I rented in Chicago was built during the 20's. The walls are thick and I used to joke about how no one could hear a murder inside, but I could still hear their alarming screams. They were acting so erratic, but it wasn't inconceivable on that being their response if she fell. Both confirmed each others elaborate lies of how she had tripped going to get a book to read. Besides, what family members do you have that would lie about others you love being hurt (especially their own 80+ mother)? Turns out, the joke was on me and it was just a conspiracy by them in order execute their kidnapping plan (I didn't see it coming either..). My newly found mistrust came in a few different forms that day1.

Now a few months ago, a certain someone that I love came home and said he had sent away someone else that I love. I was hesitant to believe him at first because he seems to enjoy torturing me, but then we looked up the seven stages of grief together (due to my 'denial'). He told me I'd have to start then at baking bread because I'd need time to get it right and let me follow through with the task. He consoled me on how much it sucks to lose someone and allowed me to stay close while he napped. While we silently ate, I inspected his face and saw no sign of even the slightest smile. The hours went by - blocks built on each other and I crumbled into belief that I lost someone, yet again. I walked around the house in a daze of shock until sometime later I heard the familiar sound of a key in the door2.

Of course, these situations are different; however, they provoke the same feelings from me. Which is all it seems to be about anyways - provoking. Admittedly at 26, I don't know much about life so I'm unable to confirm if any of this actually matters. Right now, it does matter and I wonder if anyone else has lived through the cruelty of multiple joke losses.

In other news and to answer the question in the bulk of my emails, I'm alive and well!

I'm excited to share the last two months with you - until then.... I'm alive and well. Not enslaved against my will, in a cult, or brainwashed. Or maybe this is being written by a robot composed of pale parts.


Alive, well, still a dork, but now with a goose!


Other possible clever titles for this post were: dude wheres my grandma, title today gone tomorrow (see what I did there), taken 2: tookaning.

  1. I should probably celebrate this day every year, since I lost out on being able to celebrate so many peoples birthdays because of it. Maybe I'll bake a bitter cake and invite Liam Neeson. []
  2. This meant it could only be one person. Since for over two months I have not had keys to the door of the place that I live in. There are days I want to scream about how I had keys to my apartment, my car, the HR department, and my office. That being said, I also can't cut green onions or pick out celery root. []

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of March, April and May, 1715 - Part II.

June 2nd, 2019

Ⅱ. Botanicum Hortense IV.
Giving an account of divers rare plants, observed the last summer A.D. 1714. in several curious gardens about London, and particularly the society of apothecaries physick-garden at Chelsea.
By James Petiver, F.R.S.

Sect I. European plants.

I. Valentia knotgrass. Ray's English herball tab. x.
fig. 8.
Anthyllis Valentina Clus. Hist. 186.0.9. Hisp.480.
Fig. Park. 446. Fig. 3.
Anthyllis maritima, Chamasyce similis CB. 282. I. Phyt. 552. I.
Anthyllidis species quibusdam chabr. 452. Ic. 5. I.B. Vol 3.
L. 29. p. 374. Fig.
This is a low spreading ground plant, with roundish small leaves, and very little four leaved blush flowers.
Dr. John Placa M.D. and publick Professor of Valentia, first observed this plant about the ditches of that city, and there shewed it to that accurate botanist Carolus Clusius who has given us a very good figure of it.
Dr. Magnol hath also found it on the coasts of Languedock.
Mons. Riqueur apothecary to the late Queen of Spain, sent me the seed of this and many other curious plants, which he collected about Madrid, several of which were the last summer raised in our physick garden at Chelsea, where this flowred.

2. Annual Fleawort. Ray Hist. Plant. 88I. I.
Psyllium majus erectum CB pin. 191.3. alterum CB phyt.
Psyllium five publicaris herba ger. 471. Fig. I. Jonst. 587.
Fig. I.
Publicaris herba lobel. Icon. Belg. 523. Obs. 239.
Its top branches and stalks are somewhat fat or clamy, its leaves are like hyssop and broader than the perennial. Grows plentifully i nthe ields about Montpelier.

3. Notcht-leaved Fleawort. Ray H. Pl. 882. 2.
Psyllium Dioscoridis five Indicum foliis crenatis C.B. 199.I.
prodr. 99. I.
Psyllium Indicum foliis crenatis park. 277. 3.
Psyllium laciniatis foliis bocc. 8. Tab. 4.
This differs from the common annual, only in having notcht or indented leaves.

4. Perennial Fleawort Ray 882.3.
Psyllium Camer. Epit. 811. Fig. Chabr. 501, Ic. 3. IB. 3.
I. 3I. p. 513. fig.
Psyllium majus supinum C.B. 191. 2. majus C.B. phyc.
353. I.
Psyllium maj. Sempervirens Park. 277. 2. & vulg. 278. secund. Fig.
Psyllium Plinianum forte, radice perenni, supinum lobol.
Icon 437. I:id. Belg. 523. id. Obs. 239. fig.
Grows frequently in Italy and about Montpelier.
Vertues. The seed of this plant evacuates yellow choler, and by its mucliage, blunts the acrimony of the humors, and its therefore commended in dysenteries and other corrossions of the gutts.
Dr. Sloane has experieneed it in excoriations of th uvula or plant, and where the tongue is parcht.
H. Reusnerus says a mucilage of its seeds, in rose-water with vinegar, has cured great pains in the head, proceeding from a hot cause, when other medicines have failed. The same with camphire has been successfully applied to inflamed eyes.

5. Maple Blite. Ray's English herbal Tab. 8. Fig. 7.
Atriplex odore & folio Datura, minori tamen, triumphet. 65.
Blitum aceris folio cat. herbar. Britan. tab. 8. fig. 7.
Blitum seu atriplex pes anserinus dicta, Stramonii acutiore
folio ramosum plul. mantis.
Chenepodio affinis, folio lato laciniato in longissiumum mucronem procurrente, florum racemis sparsis Ray H Pl.
Vol. 3. p. 123.
Mr. Dale was the first that observed this in England, viz. about Colchester, I find it the same with that of Triumphetti, a specimen of it being lately sent me from Peter Antony Micheli Botanist to his Royal Highness the Duke of Florence.

6. Thorney Burnett Ray 1492. cap. 7.
Pimpinella Spinosa Park 998. fig.
Poterion Lob. Ic.T.2p.26. Fig. 2. Belg. 2. p. 30. Obs. 491. fig.
Poterion Lob. five. Pimpinella Spinosa CB. 399. 2.
Poterio Assinis folio Pimpinella, Spinosa CB. 382. 2.
Rawolph first observed this plant on the sides of Mount Libanus, and from whom all our figures are copied.
Dalechamp has since found it in the valleys about Marra near Gratianople in Dauphiny.
Honorius Bellus a learned physitian in Candy, says the rusticks of that island make a tea of this plant, which cures them of all sorts of fluxes.
Its called Stoibeda in most parts of Greece.

7. Blew Cat-Succory Ray 257.c.6.
Catanance Dalech. fl. Cyani, fol, Coronopi Chabr. 342.Ic.
opt.2. I.B. 3.1.25.p.26.Fig.
Chondrilla Sesamoides dicta Park 786. fig.5.
Chondrilla Sesamoides dicta caerulea CB phyt. 217. 14.
Chondrilla caerulea, Cyani capitulis CB 131.6.
Sesamoides parvum, Matth. Ger. 397. Ic. 4. Jonst. 493. fig.3.
Its blew succory-like flowers, with narrow dented leaves distinguish it from all others.
Grows very common near Narbone, and in Savoy on dry stony hills.
I gathered this elegant plant in flower this summer in his majesty's gardens at Hampton Court, under the care of Mr. Wise, King George's gardiner.

8. Yellow Cat-Succory.
Catanance Cretica fl. luteo.
Staebe plantaginis folio. Alpin. Exot. 286. fig. park. 477.
fig 7.
Staebe plantaginis folio, fl luteo H.Oxon. Vol. 2. p. 137. 4.
Mr. Jacob Bobart Botanick Professor at Oxford, sent me the first specimen of this, which has lately flowered very well with us in Chelsea Garden.

9. Sea Ragwort. Ray. 286. 6.
Jacobea Marnia Jonst. 280. Ic. 4. CB. phyt. 218. I.
Jacobea Marina five Cineraria Chabr. 330. Ic. 6. I.B. 2.
I.24.p.1056. fig.
Jacobea Marina five Cineraria vulg. Park. 669. fig. 7.
Jacobea Maritima CB. 131. 3.
This has been long cultivated as a great ornament in gardens. Vertues. Alpinus says the Aegyptians use this as a very sovereign plant, drinking a tea of it for the stone, and to open obstructions of the bowels and womeb.
Grows on the coasts of Tuscany.

10. Sicilian Ragwort. Ray 286.9.
Jacobea Sicula Chrysanthemi facie Bocc. 66. Tab. 36.
It leaves like our corn marygold, flowers in Chelsea Garden even till Christmas. Grows wild about Catania, &c.

11. Common narrow Cassidony Ray 281. 4.
Elychryson five stachas citrina angustifolia CB. 264. 4. vel
Gallica phyt. 513. 4.
Chrysocome vulg. I. Clus. 326. fig.
Chrysocome media, f. Stachas citrina vulg. Barrelier. 974.
Ic. 409.
Stachas Citrina Dod. 268.
Stachas Citrina five Amaranthus luteus Jonst. 646. Ic. I.
Staechas Ctrina five Coma aurea Park. 68. fig. 7.
Stachas Citrina, tenuifolia Narbonensis IB. 3. 1. 26. p. 154.
fig. ead. flore luteo pallescente chabr. 369.Ic. 5.
The leaves of this plant are best represented in IB. and chabreus, being much narrower than those figured by Clusius.
Grows plentifully about Montpelier, where it flowers in April and May.

12. Candy Cassidony, Ray 282. 8.
Elychrysum Creticum CB. 264. 6.
Chrysocome 5 quae Cretica Clus. 327.
Chrysocome five stachas citrina Cretica Park. 69.8.
Stachas citrina globoso & amplo flore Cretica, Barrelier pl.
987. Ic. opt. 814.
This last author has given a very accurate figure of this plant, which is so beautiful an ornament in our most curious gardens.

13. Stif-rim'd Mary-gold, ray 338 c.4. pl.2.
After Atticus Casalp. 495. c. 30. Ger. 392. Ic.I Jonst. 486. Ic.r.
After Atticus I. Clus. 13. Fig. I. Massiloticus Tabern. Icon.
After Att. luteus vulg. Park. 128. fig. I.
After Atticus & Inguinarias. Inguinalis Lob. Ic. 348.2. Belg.
423. Obs. 188. fig.
After luteus, foliis ad florem rigidis CB. 266. I. Phyt.
518. I.
Chrysanthemum Asteris facis, foliis ad florem rigidis H.
Leyd 144.
Its rim of yellow flowers is beset with stiff, long, pointed green leaves, by which its distinguished from all others.
Its common in Sicily, Italy, Narborn and Spain, flowering in May and June.

14. Bobart's Venice Chamomil Ray 3.p.223.15.
Cotula Veneta Sophia folio Nobis.
Chamamelum annuum ramosum Cotula fatide fol. amplioribus capitulis spinosis Bob. H. Ox. 3. p. 36. 12. Sect
VI. Tab 8. fig.
We are obliged to Mr. Jacob Bobart for the first knowledge of this plant.

15. Distaff Thistle Ray 304. 4.
Atraetylis Offic. Dale 168. 3. Ger. 1008. Ic. I. Jonst. 1171.
Ic. I.
Atraetylis veterum s. vera, fl. luteo Chabr. 353. Ic.4. IB. 3. I.
25. p. 85. fig.
Atraetylis Theophrasti & Diosc. fanguineo succo Col. 19
fig. 23.
Mr. Ray has given a large description of this thistle p.
304. from accurate Columna, and it is remarkable for its bloody juice.
Its said to have the same vertues wit the Carduus Benedictus.
Grows in France, Spain and Italy as also about Geneva in path ways and borders of fields.

16. Cobweb Distaff-Thistle.
Atraetylis ramulis araneosis. an chameleon niger verus parks.
This differs frm the Distaff-Thistle in having its upper stalks woolly like cobwebs. It was many years since raised in Mr. Charles Dubois his garden at Mitcham, from seed I gave him brought me by Mr. Samuel Daniel, Surgeon, rom the Island Coos.

17. Clusius his Salamanca welted Thistle, Ray 315.
Acarna major caule folioso CB. 379.6. Park.966.f.6.
Acarne similis fl.purp. Chameleon Salmant Clus. I.B. 3. I.
Chameleon Salmanticensis Clus.Hist. 155. F.I. Jonst. II60.
Clusius first observed this about Salamanca in Spain, it hath since been found in Languedoc and other places.

18. Theophrastus his Fish Thistle Ray 315. 4. Dale
Suppl. 74.4.
Acarna di theophrasto imperati 669. fig. opt.
Acarna di theophrasto imperati 669. fig. opt.
Acarna major caule non folioso C.B. 273. 7. Park. 966.
Acarna Theophr-Imperati Ilvensis f. Italica Barrel. 912. io
Acarna similis, carduus polyacanthus chabr. 356. Ic. 2.
Polyacanthus Causabona Acarna similis I.B. 3. I. 25. p. 92.
Imperatus his figure, which barrelier has copied, very well represents this elegant thistle. Chabr. &IB. are also better than Lobel's, which Park. and most others have followed.
Grows on the hills, North of Rio near the iron mines in the Island of Ilva.

19. Dwarf Narbone artichoke. Ray 329. 29.
Centaurium majus incanum humile, cap. pint. el. bot. 355.
Instit. 449.
Chameleon non aculeatus Lob. Ic. p. 2. p. 7. Ad. 367. fig.
Jacea montana incana Pini capite. C.B. 272.
humilis mont. cap. pino simili C.B. phyt. 531. 13.
Jacea pumila Narbonensis Park. 471. fig. 6.
Jacea mont. capite magno Stroboli I.B. 3. I. 25. p. 30. fig.
Chabr. 343. IC. 3.
Stoebe Pinea amplo capite Barrel. 970. Ic. opt. 138.
Some of the bottom leaves of this are whole, which are not exprest in any figure yet extant. I have recevied very fair specimens of this elegant plant from that accurate botanist Dr. John Salvadore at Barcelona. It grows plentifully about Narbone and Montpelier, where it flowers in June, as it did this summer in Chelsea garden.

20. Cobweb-headed yellow Portugal knapweed Ray Vol. 3.
p. 204.28.
Carduus Lustian. canescens, alato caule, capite lanuginoso
El. Bot. 350. Inst. 44.
Jacea Lusit canescens alato caule, capite spinoso & lanuginoso Ray Vol. 3. p. 204. pl. 28.
Its root-leaves like scabious, but on the stalk whole and narrow, its head woolly like a cobweb, beset with long thorns, in the midst of which comes a yellow flower raised this summer in Chelsea garden.

21. Succory leaved, yellow oriental knap-weed.
Jacea lutea oriental. capite spinis simplicibus armato.
The lower leaves are lobated like the stabe salam. I. clus. but on the stalks they are plain and narrow. At the top grow specious yellow flowers like the sultan, of that colour, set in the scaley heads, each ending in a single longish prickle.
I have yet seen this only with Mr. Fairchild at Hoxton, raised from seed which Dr. Sherard sent to Mr. Stonestreet.

22. Purple knapweed with black edged scales. Ray 322. 2I.
Jacea carnea, marginibus squamarum nigris nobis.
Jacea humilis, hieracii folio park. 471. 5. H. Lugd. 1193. fig.
Jacea humilis alba, hieracii folio C.B. 271.2. phyt. 530. 12.
Jacea pumila ad. 235. fig. pumila serpens acaulis ferme.
Lob. Ic. 542. 2.
Jacea monspeliaca cui in squamis fibrae nigrae, interdum acaulis I.B. 2. I. 25. p. 29. Chabr. 343. Ic. I.
Lobel first observed this at Montpelier, where it is more commonly found with a white flower than a purple. Mr. Jezreel Jones gathered it about Lisbon, a very fair specimen of which Monsieur Vaillant sent me from Paris.

23. Austrian and Spanish Staebe Ray. 324. 4.
Staebe Gallica & Austriaca elatior Clus. I. 4. p. 10.
Staebe Austriaca elatior Park. 476.
Stabe major calyculis non splendentibus CB. 273. 3.
Stabe Salmantica alterius, altera species clus. Hisp. 362.
Centaurium majus in Muris Gesn. Hort. 252.
-- species tenuifolia chabr. 345. Ic. 6. I. B. 3. 1. 25. p. 31. fig.
Jacea alba lugd. 1192. Ic. 2.
Jacea Stabe dicta 4. CB. phyt. 532. 19.
Jacea non spinosa, fol magis fivisis elatior, capitulis minoribus non splendentibus Bob. Oxon. 140, 15.
Its lower leaves small and deeply cut its flowers purple like the common, whith small half starr'd hairy scales. Mons. Riqueur sent me the seed of this from Madrid, which flower in Chelsea garden this Autumn.

24. Pona's pine-leaved candy knapweed.
Chamapeuce Pr. Alpin. Exot. 76. fig. ex sententia G. Sherard.
Chamaepitys Berthiolo.
Chamaepitys fruticosa cretica Belli.
Jacea fruticans pini folio C.B. 271. 3. pluk. tab. 94. fig. 3.
Jacea cretica frutescens, Elychrist folio, st. magno purpurascente T. coral. 32.
Staebe Rorismarini folio Jonst. 731. fig. 4.
Stabe capitata rorismarini folio pona 329. fig. Chabr. 344.
Ic. 4.1. B. 3. 1. 25. p.36. fig.
Staebe capit. overo Chamapino frutticoso di candia ponae Ital. 75. fig.
Staebe Cretica fruiticans, Pincea aut potius Pini angustis foliis crebrius stipatis Bob. Oxon. 137. 8. Ray 3. p. 204. 29.
This is not the cyanus arborescens longifolia pr. alp. exot. p. 30. as Parkinson and some others assert.
Dr. Plukenet's figure (which he took from Sir George Wheeler's specimen) very well agrees with the pattern which Dr. Sherard sent me from Smyrna A.D. 1705. Prosper alpinus's also is well cut. Pona's amongst those of Mount Baldus was taken from a garden plant, but that in the Italian edition from a native.
This elegant plant I have only seen with Mr. Fairchild at Hoxton, raised from the seed which Dr. Sherard sent to the Reverend Mr. Stonestreet.

25. Ash-leaved scabious ray vol. 3. p. 236. pl. 30. Scabiosa Fraxinella folio instut. Rei Herbar. 666.
This is a specious plant and grows in Chelsea Garden near two foot high, its lower leaves are much deeper dented than the Fraxinella, and ore resembles our Manna ash. It flowers in July and August.

Umbelliferous Plants, &.

26. Arch-Angelica Ray. 434. 3. Bob. H. Oxon. 281. 5. Archangelica Clus. 114. Ic. Pan. 694. Chabr. 400. Ic. 6. Dod.
318. fig. JOnst. 1000. fig. 3. Park. 940. fig. 4. I.B. 3.1.
27. p. 143. fig.
Angelica Casalp. 307. c. 48.
Angelica fylv. Montana C.B. 156. 5. phyt. 273. 4. Moriff.
Umb. 9. pl. 3.
Angelica mont. Maxima, flosculis candicantibus, ad caulium nodos umbellifera Pluk. Tab. 134. fig. opt. I. Alm. bot. 30.
Imperatoria Archangelica dicta. EL. bot. 267. Inst. 317.
Grows on the Alps and other mountains.

27. Round parsley Ray 462. c. 18. I. H. Ox. B. 293. 13. Apium peregrinum foliis subrotundis C.B. 153. 9. Prodr. 8I. fig. phyt. 269. 7.
Daucus 3. Diosc. 2. plinii Col. 109, fig.
Selinum montanum Offic. Dale Suppl. 103.2.
Selinum peregrinum I Clus. 199. c. 21. Hisp. 431.
Selinum five apium peregrinum I. Clus. Park. 929. fig.
Sacifraga 3 Casalp. 315.
Visnaga minor quorundam, Selinum peregrinum Clus. femine hirsuto I.B. 3. 1. 27. p. 94. fig. Chabr. 396. Ic. 2.
Clusius observed this about Salamanca in Spain, Columna in Italy, and Mr. Ray in the hedges about Messina in Sicily.

28. Geneva Laserwort. Ray. 427. 5. Bob. H. Oxon.
321. 6.
Laserpitium Fol. latioribus lobatis Moris. Umb. 29.
----majus Almagest. Botan. 207.
Libanotis latifolia altera C.B. phyt. 277. 3.
---five vulgatior CB. pin. 157. 2.
Libanotis Theophrasti Lob. Ic. 704. I. Belg. 857. Obs. 402.
Libanotis Theophr. major Jonst. 1010. Ic. I.
Seseli Aethiopicum herba dod. 313. Fig.
This grows plentifully on the hills about Geneva.

29. Great black Master-wort Ray 475. I.
Astrantia Clus. 194. fig. major Moris. Umbell. 7.& 10.
-maj corona floris purpurascenta Instit. Rei Herbar. 314.
Astrantia nigra ger. 828. Ic. Jonst. 978. fig. Lob. ic. 681.2.
Belg. 829. Obs. 388.
Astrantia nigra major Bob. H. Oxon. 279. I.
Helleborus niger sanicula folio major C.B. 186.5. phyt. 340.4.
Imperatoria nigra tab. hist. 3000. fig. 1. Sanicula foem. Ic. 831.
- Ranunculoides sanicula folio major alm. Botan. 198.
Sanicula faemina fuchsii 670. fig.
--quibusdam aliis elleborus niger. I.B 3.1.34. p.638. fig.
Veratrum nigrum diose. Dod. 38. fig.
I have seen the tops of this mixt with some vulnerary herbs from Germany. It grows on the Alps and the hills about Geneva.

30. SHrub Hartwort Ray 476. c.5.
Seseli Aethiopicum Offic. Dale Sulp. 104. 45. lob. Ic. 634. I.
Ad. 284. Belg. 771. fig.
Seseli Aethiopicum frutex bob. H. Oc. 298. c. 27. Dod. 312.
fig. Ger. 1233. Ic. Jonst. 1421. Ic. Park. 907. fig. 14.
Seseli Aethiopicum fruticosum, folio periclymeni Chabr.
406. Ic. 4. I.B. 3.1. 27. p. 197. fig.
Seseli Aethiopicum salicis folio C.B. 161.7.
--Herbariorum C.B. phyt. 286. fig.
Bupleurum arborescens salicis folio E.B. 260. Inst. 310.
This grows on the sea-coast at Marseilles and about Montpeller.

31. Great Turnsole Ray 501.
Heliotropium Dod 70. fig.
Heliotropium majus diosc. C.B. 253. I. phyt. 487. I.
Heliotropium majus G. 264. Ic. I. Jonst. 334. Ic. I. Park.
Heliotropium majus fl. albo I.B.3. 33. p.60.fig.
Heliotropium herba cancri chabr. 521. ic. I.
Heliotropium majus & herba cancri lob. ic. 260. 2. Belg.
313. Obs. 132. Ic.
Grows wild in many places of France, Italy, Germany, &c.

32. Galen's Horehound Ray. 557. 9.
Alyssum Galeni Clus. 35. fig. Hisp. 387. Dod. 88. Park. 590.
Alyssum Galeni Ger. 379. fig. Jonst. 465. Ic. I.
Alyssum Galeni Clusi & Herbariorum Lob. Ic. 524. I. Belg.
620. Obs. 283.
Alyssum verticillatum, foliis profunde incifis C.B. 232.
Marrubium Hispan. supinum, calyce stellato & aculeato E.B.
161. Inst. 192.
Dr. Salvadore hath sent me this from Barcelona; it grows also about Madrid and other parts of Spain.

33. Galen's Horehound with more deep cut leaves.
Alyssum Galeni foliis altius incisis nobis.
Like the common, but the leaves much deeper cut, and stand on longer footstalks. Both these I have observed in Chelsea garden.

34. Spanish Silver Horehound.
Marrubium Hisp. supinum, fol. sericeis argenteis E.B. 161.
Inst. 192.
Marrubium album hispan. majus. barrel. 263. ic. 686.
This was raised in Chelsea garden from seed which Monsieur Ricqueur sent me from Madrid, and the plant is very well exprest in Barrelier's icons.

35. Anguillara's Horehound Ray 3.p.303. II & 304.8.
Pseudo-dictamnus hisp scrophularia folio. E.B 157. Inst. 188.
Galeopsis Anguillara 278. five pseudo-dictamnum nigrum
Siculum boc. Mus. 151. Tab. 114.
Dr. Laurence Heister Professor of Anatomy at Altorf sent me formerly a specimen of this, amongst divers curious plants he had gathered in the physick-gardens at Amsterdam and Leyden. Dr. Herman's figure very accurately agrees with this plant. Marrubium album rotundifolium hispanicum maximum
schol. bot. 60. parad. batav. 201. fig. opt.

36. Herman's Cupt Hore-hound Ray 3.p. 303.I0.
Marrubium dictamni spurii foliis & facie parad. bat. 200.
Pseudo dictamnu hisp. folio rugofiore schol. bot. 61. bob.
oxon. 380. 4.
Pseudodictamnus hisp. fol. crispis & rugosis E.B. 157.
Inst. 188.
Pseudo-dictamnus nigro rotundo crispo folio bocc. mus.
152. tab. I.
This chiefly differs from the common in having thinner and larger flower-cups; its leaves more pointed and somewhat dented.

37. Common Cupt Horehound Ray. 557. XI.
Pseudo-dictamnus park. 28. fig. 2.
Pseudo-dictamnus verticillatus inodorus C.B. 222.2 phyt.
Pseudodictamnus fol. non crenatis, verticillatus inodorus
Bob. H. Ox. 379. I.
Pseudodictamnum Cam. Epit. 474. fig. opt. dod. 281. fig.
Ger. 651. f.2. Jonst. 795. f. I.
Pseudodictamnum floribus verticillatis lob. 502. Ic. 2. Belg.
592. Obs. 267. fig.
This is known from the last, in having smaller cupps, plain and rounder leaves on very woolly stalks.

38. Broad phlome, yellow or French sage, ray 511. 13.
phlomis fruticosa, salvia folio latiore & rotundiore instit;
Salvia frut. lutea, latifolia, five verbascum fylv. &c. park.
52. fig. xi.
Verbascum latis salviae foliis C.B. 240. I. phyt.
455. I.
Verbascum fylv. matth. clus. 28. fig. I.
Verbascum 4 matth. Lob. Ic. 56. B. 661. Obs. 302.
The French call this plant, sauge sauvage or wild sage. It grows plentifully on Sierra Morena or the Black Mountain supposed the mons Marianus of the antients, situate between Portugal and Andalufia, where the natives call this plant Matulera. My worthy friend Mr. Charles du Bois tells me the country people about Mitcham use this as a certain remedy in the Quinsey.

39. Narrow Phlome.
Phlomis fruticosa, salvia folio longiore & angustiore Instit.
The leaves of this are very like common sage, but paler above and whiter underneath, and much lesser than the last and narrower. That accurate botanist Dr. Salvadore hath sent me this from Barcelona.

40. Aleppo Phlome.
Pseudo-salvia chalepensis ampliore folio cordiformi bobart.
H. Ox. 397. 2. sect. Xi. tab. 16. fig.
These leaves differ from the broad phlome in being thicker, more rugged and cordated at the footstalk; I am obliged to Mr. Jacob Bobart for the first knowledge of this plant, which I have since observed with Mr. Thomas Fairchild at Hoxton.

41. Samos Phlome.
Phlomis Samia Lunaria folio, Boer. p. 62.
Phlomis Samia Herbacea, folio Lunaria T. Coral. 10.
The flowers pale, buff or whitish, the inside or lower lip pounct or shaded with brown, the bottoms of each calyx are guarded with two or three long slender thorns; its roots or lower leaves, in shape, resemble garden honesty, but are stiffer, and underneath soft and whitish.
I have as yet observed this plant only in Chelsea Garden where it floured in July.

42. True Old Time Ray. 519. 3. c. 7. Lecaan 43. p. 80.
Thymus capitatus qui dioscoridis C.B. 219. 3. phyt. 414. 3.
Thymum legitimum clus. 357. fig. opt.
Thymum legitimum capitatum park. 7. fig. I.
Thymum creticum Jonst. 574. fig. 3. opt.
Thymum cret. S. Antiquorum I.B. 3. I. 28. p. 262.
This fragrant time of the antients I first received from coos; it grows also about Sevill and Cales.

43. Broad Candy Savory, Ray 519. 4.
Satureia Cretica C.B. 218. 4. Phyt. 413. 4. Jonst. 576. f. 4.
Satureia Cretica Jonst. 576. f. 4. latiore folio Bob. H. Ox.
412. 6.
Thymbra legitima Clus. 358. fig. I. opt.
Thymbra legitima Dioscoridis Ponae 104.
Thymbra S. Satureia Cretica legitima Park. 5. fig. 4.
Thymum Creticum Pona verticillatum Barrel. 278. Ic. 898.
Tragoriganum Clusi Ger. 543. fig.
It's distinguish'd by its broad time leaves and close whorles.

44. Black Rough Goat Succory Ray. 523.3. Lecaan. 37. p. 77.
Tragoriganum P. Alp. 78. fig. c. 36. Dod.
Tragoriganum Creticum C.B. 223. 4. Park. 17. fig. I.
Tragoriganum Cretense Jonst. 668. Ic. 3.
Tragoriganum 2 altera species Clus. 355. fig. 3.
Alpinus and Clusius his figures, which are both originals, very well agree with this plant, which Jacob Bobart not long since sent me a sample of, and has much narrower and smaller leaves than the broad Candy Savory.

45. Narrow-leaved Goat-Savory Ray. 523. I. Lecaan
36. p. 76.
Tragoriganum Ger. 543. fig. I.
Tragoriganum Clus. Jonst. 668. fig. 2.
Tragoriganum alterum clus. 355. fig. 2. hisp. 240. fig. dod. 286.
Tragoriganum angustifolium C.B. 223. 3.
--2. C.B. phyt. 422. x. fl. albo clus. lob. obs. 264. fig. Ic.
494. I.
Tragoriganum Hispanicum Park. 17. f. 3.
Tragoriganum tenuioribus foliis fl. candido chabr. 421.
Ic. 4. I.B. 3. I. 28. p. 261. fig.
Sideritis Hispanica erecta fol. angustiore E.B. 160. Inst.
Mons. Ricqueur sent me the seed of this elegant plant from Madrid, which flowered with us in Chelsea garden.

46. Sage Iron-wort, Ray 566. 17.
Sideritis marina salvifolia nostra donati 84.
Sideritis heraclea dioscoridis, five marina salvifolia nostra
Donato Park. 1681. fig. 16.
Betonica maritima, flore ex luteo pallescente instit. 203.
Dr. Magnol found this on the stoney sea shores in Languedoc; and Dr. Salvadore hath sent it me from Barcelona. It much resembles the Sideritis glabra arvensis Chabr. 473. Ic. I. but has yellowish flowers and softer leaves. It flowers with us in June and July.

N.B. The rest will be incerted in the next Transactions.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 229).

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of Jan. Febr. and March, 1716 - Part V.

May 14th, 2019

Ⅴ. An account of the late surprizing appearance of the lights seen in the air, on the sixth of March last; with an attempt to explain the principal phænomena thereof; as it was laid before the Royal Society by Edmund Halley, J.V.D. Savilian Professor of Geom. Oxon, and Reg. Soc. Secr.

The Royal Society, having received accounts from very many parts of Great Britain, of the unusual lights which have of late appeared in the heavens; were pleased to signify their desires to me, that I should draw up a general relation of the fact, and explain more at large some conceptions of mine I had proposed to them about it, as seeming to some of them to render a tollerable solution of the very strange and surprizing phænomena thereof. The desires of the Society having with me the force of commands, I shall not decline the task; only premising that if, in delivering the etiology of a matter so uncommon, never before seen by myself, nor fully described by any either of the ancients or moderns, I fail to answer their expectation or my own desires; yet 'tis hoped a good history of the fact deduced partly from our own observations, and partly collected from the uniform relations of credible persons, or from the letters of such, may not be unacceptable to the curious; and may perhaps excite the genius of some more able meteorologist to a more satisfactory enquiry. The account of this appearance take as follows.

On Tuesday the sixth of March, st. vet. in the current year 1716, (the afternoon having been very serene and calm, and somewhat warmer than ordinary) about the time it began to grow dark, that is much about 7 of the clock, not only in London, but in all parts of England, where the beginning of this wonderful sight was seen; out of what seemed a dusky cloud, in the N.E. parts of the heaven and scarce ten degrees high, the edges whereof were tinged with a reddish yellow like as if the moon had been hid behind it, there arose very long, luminous rays or streaks perpendicular to the horizon, some of which seem'd nearly to ascend to the zenith. Presently after, that reddish cloud was swiftly propagated along the northern horizon, into the N.W. and still farther Westerly; and immediately sent forth its rays after the same manner from all parts, now here, now there, they observing no rule or order in their rising. Many of these rays seeming to concur near the zenith, formed there a corona, or image which drew the attention of all spectators, who according to their several conceptions made very differing resemblances thereof; but by which compared together, those that saw it not, may well comprehend after what manner it appeared. Some likened it to that representation of Glory wherewith our painters in churches surround the Holy Name of God. Others to those radiating starrs wherewith the breasts of the knights of the most noble order of the garter are adorned. Many compared it to the concave of the great cupola of St. Paul's Church, distinguisht with streaks alternably light and obscure and having in the middle a space less bright than the rest, resembling the lantern. Whilst others, to express as well the motion as figure thereof, would have it to be like the flame in an oven, reverberated and rouling against the arched roof thereof; and some there were that thought it liker to that tremulous light which is cast against a ceiling by the beams of the sun, reflected from the surface of water in a bason that's a little shaken; whose reciprocal vibrating motion it very much imitated. But all agree that this spectrum lasted only a few minutes, and show'd itself variously tinged with colours, yellow, red and a dusky green; nor did it keep in the same place; fro when first it began to appear, it was seen a little to the Northwards of the Zenith, but by degrees declining towards the South, the long stria of light, which arose from all parts of the Northern semicircle of the horizon, seemed to meet together, not much above the head of Castor or the Northern Twin, and soon disappeared.

After the first impetus of this ascending vapour was over, the corona we have been describing appeared no more; but still, without any order as to time, or place, or size, luminous radii like the former continued to arise perpendicularly, now often and again seldomer, now here, now there, now longer, now shorter. Nor did they proceed at first out of a cloud, but oftner would emerge at once out of the pure sky, which was at that time more than ordinary serene and still. Nor were they all of the same form. Most of them seemed to end in a point upwards, like erect cones; other truncate cones or cylinders, so much resembled the long tails of comets, that at first sight they might well betaken for such. Again, some of these rays would continue visible for several minutes; when others, and those the much greater part, just shew'd themselves and died away. Some seem'd to have little motion, and to stand as it were fix'd among the stars, whilst other with a very perceptible translation moved from East to West under the pole, contrary to the motion of the heavens; by which means they would sometimes seem to run together, and at other times to fly one another; affording thereby a surprizing spectacle to the beholders.

After this sight had continued about an hour and a half, those beams began to rise much fewer in number and not near so high, and by degrees that diffused the light, which had illustrated the Northern parts of the hemisphere, seemed to subside, and settling on the horizon formed the resemblance of a very bright crepusculum; that this was the state of this phænomenon, in the first hours, is abundantly confirmed by the unanimous consent and concurring testimony of several very worthy persons no ways enclined to deceive. For by the letters we have received from almost all the extream parts of the kingdom, there is found very little difference in the description from what appeared at London and Oxford; unless that in the North of England, and in Scotland, the light seemed somewhat stronger and brighter.

Hitherto I am forced to relate the observations of others, wherein I fear many very material circumstances may be omitted; and assuredly I am not a little concern'd that I had no notice of this matter, till between nine and ten of the clock, being at that time at a friend's house, and no ways suspecting what past without doors. But upon the first impression of the thing, we immediately ran to the windows, which hapned to regard the South and South-West quarter; and soon perceived, that through the sky was very clear, yet it was tinged with a strange sort of light; so that the smaller stars were scarce to be seen, and much as it is when the moon of four days old appears after twilight. And whilst we regarded the heavens with attention, we perceived a very thin vapour to pass before us, which arose from the precise East part of the horizon, ascending obliquely, so as to leave the zenith about 15 or 20 degrees to the Northward. But the swiftness wherewith it proceeded was scarce to be believed, seeming not inferiour to that of lightening; and exhibiting, as it past on, a sort of momentaneous Nubecula, which discovered itself by a very diluted and faint whiteness; and was no sooner formed, but before the eye could well take it, it was gone, and left no signs behind it. Nor was this a single appearance; but for several minutes that we regarded it, about six or seven times in a minute, the same was again and again repeated; these waves of vapour (if I may be allowed to use the word) regularly succeeding one another, and, as we guest, at intervals very nearly equal; all of them in their ascent producing a like transient Nubecula.

By this particular we were first assured, that the vapour we saw, whatever it were, became conspicuous by its own proper light, without help of the sun beams; for these Nubecula did not discover themselves in any other part of their passage, but only between the South-East, and South, where being opposite to the sun they were deepest immerst in the cone of the earths shadow; nor were they visible before or after. Whereas the contrary must have happened, had they borrowed their light from the sun.

We then made all the hast we could to a place where there is a free prospect of the Northern horizon. Being come there, not much past ten of the clock, we found, on the Western size, viz. between the W. and N.W. the representation of a very bright twilight, contiguous to the horizon; out of which there arose very long beams of light, not exactly erect toward the vertex, but something declining to the South, which ascending by a quick and undulating motion to a considerable height, vanished in a little time, whilst others, tho' at uncertain intervals, supply'd their place. But at the same time, through all the rest of the Northern horizon, viz. from the North-West to the true East, there did not appear any sign of light to arise from, or joyn to, the horizon; but on the contrary, what appeared to be an exceeding black and dismal cloud seem'd to hang over all that part of it. Yet was it no cloud, but only the serene sky more than ordinary pure and limpid, so that the bright stars shone clearly in it, and particularly Cauda Cygni then very low in the North; the great blackness manifestly proceeding from the neighbourhood of the light which was collected above it. For the light had now put on a form quite different from all that we have hiterto described, and had fashioned itself into the shape of two Lamina or streaks, lying in a position parallel to the horizon, whose edges were but ill terminated. They extended themselves from the N. by E. to the North East, and were each about a degree broad; the undermost about eight or nine degrees high, and the other about four or five degrees over it; these kept their places for a long time, and made the sky so light, that I believe a man might easily have read an ordinary print by the help thereof.

Whilst we stood astonished at this suprizing sight, and expecting what was further to come, the Northern end of the upper Lamina by degrees bent downwards, and at length closed with the end of the other that was under it, so as to shut up on the Northside an intermediate space, which still continued open to the East. Not long after this, in the said included space, we saw a great number of small columns or whitish streaks to appear suddenly, erect to the horizon, and reaching from the one Lamina to the other; which instantly disappearing were too quick for the eye, so that we could not judge whether they arose from the under or fell from the upper, but by their sudden alterations they made such an appearance, as might well be taken to resemble the conflicts of men in battle.

And much about the same time, to encrease our wonder, there began on a sudden to appear low under the pole and very near due North, three or four lucid areas like clouds, discovering themselves, in the pure but very black sky, by their yellowish light. These, as they broke out at once, so after they had continued a few minutes, disappeared as quick as if a curtain had been drawn over them; nor were they of any determined figure, but both in shape and size might properly be compared to small clouds illuminated by the full moon, but brighter.

Not long after this, from above the aforesaid two Lamina, there arose a very great pyramidal figure, like a spear, sharp at the top, whose sides were inclined to each other with an angle of about four or five degrees, and which seemed to reach up to the zenith or beyond it. This was carried with an equable and not very slow motion, from the N.E. where it arose, into the N.W. where it disappeared, still keeping in a perpendicular situation, or very near it; and passing successively over all the stars of the Little Bear, did not efface the smaller ones in the tail, which are but the fifth magnitude; such was the extream rarity and perspicuity of the matter where of it consisted.

This single beam was so far remarkable above all those that for a great while before had preceeded it, or that followed it, that if the situation thereof among the circumpolar stars had at the same instant been accurately noted, for example, at London and Oxford, whose difference of longitude is well known, we might be enabled thereby with some certainty to pronounce, by its diversitas aspectus1, concerning the distance and height thereof; which were undoubtedly very great, tho' as yet we can no ways determine them. But as this phænomenon found all those that are skill'd in the observation of the heavens unprepared, and unacquainted with what was to be expected, so it left all of them surprized and astonished at the novelty thereof. When therefore for the future any such thing shall happen, all those that are curious in astronomical matters, are hereby admonished and entreated to set their clocks to the apparent time at London, for example, by allowing so many minutes as is the difference of meridians; and then to note at the end of every half hour precisely, the exact situation of what at that time appears remarkable in the sky; and particularly the Azimuths of those very small pyramids so eminent above the rest, and therefore likely to be seen furthest; to the intent that by comparing those observations taken in the same moment in distant places, the difference of their Aziumuths may serve to determine how far those pyramids are from us.

It being now past eleven of the clock, and nothing new offering itself to our view, but repeated phases of the same spectacle; we thought it no longer worth while to bear the chill of the night-air sub dio2. Wherefore being returned to my house, I made haste to my upper windows, which conveniently enough regard the N.E. parts of heaven, and soon found that the two lamina or streaks parallel to the horizon, of which we have been speaking, had now wholly disappeared; and the whole spectacle reduced itself to the resemblance of a very bright crepusculum setling on the Northern horizon, so as to be brightest and highest under the pole itself; from whence it spread both ways, into the N.E. and N.W. Under this, in the middle thereof, there appeared a very black space, as it were the segment of a lesser circle of the sphere cut off by the horizon. It seemed to the eye like a dark cloud, but was not so; for by the telescope the small stars appeared through it more clearly than usual, considering how low thy were; and upon this as a basis our lumen auroriforme rested, which was no other than a segment of a ring or zone of the sphere, intercepted between two parallel lesser circles, cut off likewise by the horizon; or, if you please, the segment of a very broad iris, but of one uniform colour; viz. a flame colour inclining to yellow, the center thereof being about forty degrees below the horizon. And above this there were seen some rudiments of a much larger segment, with an interval of dark sky between, but this was so exceeding faint and uncertain that I could make no proper estimate thereof.

I was very desirous to have seen how this phænomenon would end, and attended it till near three in the morning, and the rising of the moon; but for above two hours together it had no manner of change in its appearance, nor diminution nor encrease of light; only sometimes for very short intervals, as if new fuel had been cast on a fire, the light seem'd to undulate and sparkle, not unlike the rising of vaporous smoak out of a great blaze when agitated. But one thing I assured myself of by this attendance and watching, viz. that this iris-like figure did by no means owe its origine to the sun's beams; for that about three in the morning, the sun being in the middle between the North and East, our aurora had not follow'd him, but ended in that very point where he then was; whereas in the true North, which the sun had long past, the light remained unchanged and in its full lustre.

Hitherto I have endeavoured by words to represent what I saw, but being sensible how insufficient such a verbal description of a thing so extraordinary and unknown may be to most readers, I have thought fit to annex a figure exhibiting that particular appearance of the two lamina, which I saw at London between the hours of ten and eleven; more especially, because I do not find, among the many relations I have seen, any one that has taken notice of it. In this figure AB is the under lamina, somewhat broader and brighter than the upper CD; it had near its under edge the lucida lyra, and below its Northern extremity, on the left-hand, cauda cygni; and as well above and below these, as in the intermediate space between them, and indeed all round about that part of the heavens, the sky was so unusually dark and black, as if all that exotick light that had shew'd itself before, had been then collected into those two streaks. only at L between the West and Northwest and no where else, out of a brightness adjoining to the horizion, there arose conical beams as M, L, N, after the same manner as at first.

Whilst we stood looking on, the streak CD at its Northern end bent downward, and joyned with the under AB at E, and included the space DCEAB, which still kept open at the other end towards the East and in the mean time, out of the very clear sky, some luminous spots, situated and figured as in the scheme at G, G, G, G, presented themselves to the eye, in colour much like the lamina. These did not shew themselves all together, but came successively, yet so as two or three of them were seen at a time; and as their coming was instantaneous, so they went away in a moment. At the same time likewise, the several little white columns marked F, F, F, F, occupied that part of the space between the two streaks next to E, and by their sudden and very irregular motion, and the vanishing of some whilst others at the same time emerged, gave occasion to the conception of those that fancy'd battles fought in the air. Lastly from about the middle of CD, there arose suddenly a cone or obelisk of a pale whitish light, greater than any we had yet seen, as H; which moving from East to West, with a motion sufficiently regular, was translated to K, in the North West, and there disappeared.
That we might by the same scheme shew the appearance of the last hours, after midnight; the reader is desired to take notice that we have made the light at L, much bigger than what appeared in the West about ten of the clock; so as to represent truly that other. In this case the point L must, by the imagination, be supposed transferred to the intersection of the horizon and meridian under the pole. And that we might the better be understood in what follows, we have made this short recapitulation as annex'd to, and explicative of, the scheme, which could by no means be contrived to answer the wonderful variety this phænomena afforded; since even the eye of no one single observer, was sufficient to follow it in the suddenness and frequency of its alterations.

Thus far I have attempted to describe what was seen, and am heartily sorry I can say no more as to the first and most suprizing part thereof, which however frightful and amazing it might seem to the vulgar beholder, would have been to me a most agreeable and wish'd for spectacle; for then I should have contemplated propriis oculis all the several sorts of meteors I remember to have hitherto heard or read of. This was the only one I had not as yet seen, and of which I began to despair, since it is certain it hath not happen'd to any remarkable degree in this part of England since I was born; nor is the like recorded in the English annals since the year of our Lord 1574, that is above one hundred and forty years ago, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Then, as we are told by the historians of those times, Cambden and Stow, eye witnesses of sufficient credit, for two nights successively, viz. on the 14th and 15th of November that year, much the same wonderful phænomena were seen, with almost all the same circumstances as now.
Nor indeed, during the reign of that glorious Princess, was this so rare a sight as it has been since. For we find in a book entituled a Description of Meteors, reprinted at London in the year 1654, whose author writes himself W.F.D.D. that the same thing, which he there calls burning spears, was seen at London on January 30, 1560; and again by the testimony of Stow, on the 7th of October, 1554. And from foreign authors we learn, that in the year 1575, the same was twice repeated in Brabant, viz. on the 13th of February and 28th of September; and seen and described by Cornelius Gemma, Professor of Medicine in the University of Lovain, and son of Gemma Frisius the mathematician. He, in a discourse he wrote of the prodigies of those times, after several ill-boding prognosticks, thus very properly describes the cupola and corona that he saw in the Chasma (as he calls it) of February. Paulo post undecunque surgentibus hastis & flammis nouis flagrare coelum a borea parte vsque adverticem videbatur; ac denique ne nibil qua contigerunt hactenus prafiguratum antea videretur, conversa est coeli facies, per bora spatium, in fritillia aleatorii speciem peregrinam; alternantibus sese caruleo & candido, non minore vertigine motusque celeritate, quam solares radii solent, quoties ab objecto speculo regeruntur. Here it is not a little remarkable, that all these four already mentioned fell exactly upon the same age of the moon, viz. about two days after the change.

As to the other of September in the same year 1575, these are the words of gemma. Minus quidem horrendum, sed varia tamen magisque confula nobis apparuit alterius chasmatis forma, quarto calendas Octobreis subsecuti, statim ab occasu solis. Nam in illo visi sunt arcus illustres plurimi, ex quibus hasta sensim eminentes, urbesque turrita & acies militares. Erant hinc radiorum excursus quaquaversum, & nubium fluctus & pralia; insectabantur invicem & fugiebant, facta in orbem conversione mirabilt. From hence 'tis manifest that this phaenomenon appeared in our neighbourhood three several times, and that with considerable intervals, within the compass of one year; though our English historians have not recorded the two latter; nor did Gemma see that of November 1574, as 'tis most likely by reason of clouds. After this, in the year 1580, we have the authority of Michael Mastlin, *3 (himself a good astronomer, and still more famous for having had the honour to be the great Kepler's tutor in sciences) that at Baknang in the country of Wirtemburg in Germany, these Chasmata, as he likewise stiles them, were seen by himself no less than seven times within the space of twelve months. The first of these, and most considerable, fell out on the very same day of the month with ours, viz. on Sunday the sixth of March, and was attended with much the same circumstances, which, for brevity's sake, I omit. And again the same things were seen in a very extraordinary manner on the 9th of April and 10th of September following; but in a less degree, on the 6th of April, 21st of September, 26th of December and 16th of February, 1581; the last of which, and that of the 21st of September must needs have been more considerable than they then appeared, because the moon being near the full, necessarily effaced all the fainter lights. Of all these however no one is mentioned in our annals to have been seen in England, nor in any other place that I can find; such was the neglect of curious matters in those days.

The next in order that we hear of, was that of the year 1621, on September the 2d. st. vet. seen all over France, and well described by Gassendus in his physicks, who gives it the name of Aurora Borealis. This tho' little inferiour to what we lately saw, and appearing to the Northwards both Rouen and Paris, is no where said to have been observed in England, over which the light seemed to lie. And since then for above 80 years, we have no account of any such sight either from home or abroad; notwithstanding that for above half that time, these Philosophical Transactions have been a constant register of all such extraordinary occurrences. The first we find on our books, was one of small continuance seen in Ireland by Mr. Neve on the 16th of November 1707, both on the 24th of January and 18th of February, st. vet. something of this kind was seen by M. Olaus Romer at Copenhagen; and again on the 23d of February, the same excellent astronomer observed there such another appearance, but much more considerable; of which yet he only saw the beginning, clouds interposing. But the same was seen that night by Mr. Gotfried Kirch, at Berlin above 200 miles from Copenhagen, and lasted there till past ten at night. To these add another small one of short duration, seen near London, a little before midnight between the ninth and tenth of August, 1708, by the Right Reverend Philip Lord Bishop of Hereford, and by his Lordship communicated to the Royal Society; so that, it seems, in little more than eighteen months this sort of light has been seen in the sky, no less than five times; in the years 1707 and 1708.

Hence we may reasonably conclude that the air, or earth, or both, are sometimes, though but seldom and with great intervals, disposed to produce this phænomenon; for though it be probable that many times, when it happens, it may not be observed, as falling out in the day time, or in cloudy weather, or bright moon-shine; yet that it should be so very often seen at some times, and so seldom at others, is what cannot well be that way accounted for. Wherefore casting about and considering what might be most probably the material cause of these appearances; what first occur'd was the vapour of water rarified exceedingly by subterraneous fire, and tinged with sulfureous steams; which vapour is now generally taken by our naturalists to be the cause of earthquakes. And as earthquakes happen with great uncertainty, and have been sometimes frequent in places, where for many years before and after they have not been felt; so these, which we might be allowed to suppose produced by the eruption of the pent vapour through the pores of the earth, when it is not in sufficient quantity, nor sudden enough to shake its surface, or to open itself a passage by rending it. And as these vapours are suddenly produced by the fall of water upon the nitro-sulphurous fires under ground, they might well be thought to get from thence a tincture which might dispose them to shine in the night, and a tendency contrary to that of gravity; as we find the vapours of gun-powder, when heated in vacuo, to shine in the dark, and ascend to the top of the receiver though exhausted; the experiment of which I saw very neatly performed by Mr. J Whiteside keeper of Ashmole's Museum in Oxford.

Nor should I seek for any other cause than this, if in some of these instances, and particularly this whereof we treat, the appearance had not been seen over a much greater part of the earth's surface that can be thus accounted for. It having in this last been visible from the West side of Ireland to the confines of Russia and Poland on the East (nor do we yet know its limits on that side) extending over at least thirty degrees of longitude; and in latitude, from about fifty degrees over almost all the North of Europe; and in all places exhibiting at the same time the same wonderous circumstances, as we are informed by the publick news. Now this is a space much too wide to be shaken at any one time by the greatest of earthquakes, or to be affected by the perspiration of that vapour, which being included and wanting vent, might have occasioned the earth to tremble. Nor can we this way account for that remarkable particular attending these lights, of being always seen on the Northside of the horizon and never to the South.

Wherefore laying aside all hopes of being able to explain these things by the ordinary vapours or exhalations of the earth or waters, we are forced to have recourse to other sorts of effluvia of a much more subtile nature, and which perhaps may seem more adapted to bring about those wonderful and surprizingly quick motions we have seen. Such are the magnetical effluvia, whose atoms freely permeate the pores of the most solid bodies, meeting with no obstacle from the interposition of glass or marble or even gold itself. These by a perpetual efflux do, some of them, arise from the parts near the poles of the magnet whilst others of the like kind of atoms, but with a contrary tendency, enter in at the same parts of the stone, through which they freely pass; and by a kind of circulation surround it on all sides, as with an atmosphere, to the distance of some diameters of the body. This thing des Cartes has endeavoured to explain (Princip. Philsoph. Lib IV.) by the hypothesis of the circulation of certain skrewed or striate particles, adapted to the pores they are to enter.

But without enquiring how sufficient the Cartesian hypothesis may be for answering the several phænomena of the magnet; that the fact may be the better comprehended we shall endeavour to exhibit the manner of the circulation of the atoms concerned therein, as they are exposed to view, by placing the poles of a terrella or spherical magnet on a plane, as the globe on the horizon of a right sphere; then strewing fine steel dust or filings very thin on the plain all round it, the particles of steel, upon a continued gentle knocking on the underside of the plain, will by degrees conform themselves to the figures in which the circulation is performed. Thus in Fig. II. Let ABCD be a terrella, and its poles A the South, and B the North; and by doing as prescribed, it will be found that the filings will lie in a right line perpendicular to the surface of the ball, when in the line of the magnetical axis continued. But for about forty five degrees on either side, from B to G or l, and from A to H or K, they will form themselves into curves, more and more crooked as they are remoter from the poles; and withall more and more oblique to the surface of the stone; as our figure truly represents, and as may readily be shewn by the terrella and apparatus for that purpose in the repository of the Royal Society. Hence it may appear how this exceeding subtile matter resolves; and particularly how it permeates the magnet with more force and in greater quantity in the circumpolar parts, entring into it on the one side, and emerging from it on the other, under the same oblique angles; whilst in the middle zone about C and D, near the magnet's equator (if I may use the word) very few if any of these particles do impinge and those very obliquely.

Now by many and very evident arguments it appears that our globe of earth is no other than one great magnet, or (if I may be allowed to alledge an invention of my own) rather two; the one including the other as the shell includes the kernel (for so and not otherwise we may explain the changes of the variation of the magnetical needle) but to our present purpose the result is the same. It suffices that we may suppose the same sort of circulation of such an exceeding fine matter to be perpetually performed in the earth, as we observe in the terella; which subtile matter freely pervading the pores of the earth, and entring into it near its Southern pole, may pass out again into the ether, at the same distance from the Northern, and with a like force; its direction being still more oblique, as the distance from the poles is greater. To this we beg leave to suppose, that this subtile matter, no otherways discovering itself but by its effects on the magnetick needle, wholly imperceptible and at other times invisible, may now and then, by the concourse of several causes very rarely coincident, and to us yet unknown, be capable of producing a small degree of light; perhaps from the greater density of the matter, or the greater velocity of its motion; after the same manner as we see effluvia of electrick bodies by a strong and quick friction emit light in the dark; to which sort of light this seems to have a great affinity.

This being allowed me, I think we may readily assign a cause for many of the strange appearances we have been treating of, and for some of the most difficult to account for otherwise; as why these lights are rarely seen any where else but in the North, and never, that we hear of, near the equator; as also why they are more frequently seen in Iceland and Groenland, than in Norway, though nearer the pole of the world. For the magnetical poles, in this age, we are to the Westward of our meridian and more so of that of Norway, and not far from Groenland; as appears by the variation of the needle this year observed, full twelve degrees at London to the West.

The erect position of the luminous beams or stria so often repeated that night, was occasioned by the rising of the vapour or lucid matter nearly perpendicular to the Earth's surface. For that any line erected perpendicularly upon the surface of the globe, will appear erect to the horizon of an eye placed any where in the same spherical superficies; as euclid demonstrates in a plain, that any line erected at right angles to it, will appear to be perpendicular to that plain from any point thereof. That it should be so in the sphere is a very pretty proposition not very obvious, but demonstrated Prop. 5. Lib. I. Theodosii Spharic. For by it all lines erect on the surface pass through the center, where meeting with those from the eye, they form the plains of vertical circles thereto. And by the converse hereof it is evident, that this luminous matter arose nearly perpendicular to the earth's position. And whereas in this appearance (and perhaps in all others of the kind) those beams which arose near the East and West, as L, M, N, were furthest from the perpendicular, on both sides inclining towards the South, whilst those in the North were directly upright;the cause thereof may well be explained by the obliquity of the magnetical curves, making still obtuser angles with the meridians of the terrella, as they are further from its poles.

Hence also it is manifest how that wonderful corona that was seen to the Southwards vertex, in the beginning of the night, and so very remarkable for it's tremulous and vibrating light, was produced; to wit, by the concourse of many of those beams arising very high out of the circumjacent regions, and meeting near the zenith; the effluvia whereof they consisted mixing and interfering one with another, and thereby occasioning a much stronger but uncertain wavering light. And since it is agreed by all our accounts that this corona was tinged with various colours, 'tis more than probable that these vapours were carried up to such a height, as to emerge out of the shadow of the earth, and to be illustrated by the direct beams of the sun; whence it might come to pass that this first corona was seen coloured and much brighter than what appeared afterwards in some places, where the sight thereof was more than once repeated, after the sun was gone down much lower under the horizon. Hence also it will be easily understood that this corona was not one and the same in all places, but was different in every differing horizon; exactly after the same manner as the rainbow seen in the same cloud is not the same bow, but different to every several eye.

Nor is it to be doubted, by the pyramidical figure of these ascending beams i opticall; since according to all likelyhood they are parallel-sided, or rather taporing the otherway. But by the rules of perspective, their sides ought to converge to a point, as we see in pictures the parallel borders of streight walks, and all other lines parallel to the axis of vision, meet as in a center. Wherefore those rays which arose highest above the earth and were nearest the eye, seemed to terminate in cusps sufficiently acute, and have been for that reason supposed by the vulgar to represent spears. Others seen from afar, and perhaps not rising so high as the former, would terminate as if cut off with plains parallel to the horizon, like truncate cones or cylinders; these have been taken to look like the battlements and towers on the walls of cities fortified after the ancient manner. Whilst others yet further off, by reason of their great distance, good part of them being intercepted by the interposition of the convexity of the earth, would only shew their pointed tops, and because of their shortness have gotten the name of swords.

Next the motion of these beams, furnishes us with a new and, as it seems to me, most evident argument to prove the diurnal rotation of the earth; (though that be a matter which, at present, is generally taken by the learned to be past dispute) For those beams which rose up to a point, and did not presently disappear, but continued for some time, had most of them a sensible motion from East to West, contrary to that of the heavens; the biggest and tallest of them, as being nearest, swiftest; and the more remote and shorter, flower. By which means, the one overtaking the other, they would sometimes seem to meet and jostle; and at other times to separate, and fly one another. But this motion was only optical, and occasioned by the eye of the spectator being carried away with the earth into the East; whilst the exceeding rare vapour of which those beams did consist, being, as I take it, raised far above the atmosphere, was either wholly left behind, or else followed with but part of its velocity, and therefore could not but seem to recede and move the contrary way. And after the same manner as the stars that go near the zenith, pass over those vertical circles which border on the meridian, much swifter than those stars which are more distant therefrom; so these luminous rays would seem to recede faster from East to West, as their bases were nearer the eye of the spectator; and è contra, flower as they were further off.

Nor are we to think it strange, if after so great a quantity of luminous vapour had been carried up into the ether out of the pores of the earth, the cause of its effervescence at length abating, or perhaps the matter thereof consumed; these effluvia should at length subside, and form those two bright lamina which we have described, and whose edges being turn'd to us were capable to emit so much light that we might read by them. I choose to call them lamina, because, without doubt, though they were but thin, they spread horizontally over a large tract of the earth surface. And whilst this luminous matter dropt down from the upper plate to the under, the many little white columns were formed between them by its descent, only visible for the moment of their fall. These by the swiftness with which they vanished and their great number, shewing themselves and disappearing without any order, exhibited a very odd appearance; those on the right seeming sometimes to drive and push those on the left, and vice versa.

I have been obliged to omit several particulars of less moment; but these are the principal phænomena; of whose causes I should have more willingly and with more certainty given my thoughts, if I had the good luck to have seen the whole from beginning to end; and to have added my own remarks to the relations of others; and especially if we could by any means have come at the distances thereof. If it shall by any be thought a hard supposition that I assume the effluvia of the magnetical matter for this purpose, which in certain cases may themselves become luminous, or rather may sometimes carry with them out the bowels of the earth a sort of atom proper to produce light in the ether. I answer that we are not as yet informed of any other kinds of effluvia of terrestrial matter which may serve for our purpose, than those we have here considered, viz. the magnetical atoms, and those of water highly rarified into vapour. Nor do we find anything like it in what we see of the celestial bodies, unless it be the effluvia projected out of the bodies of comets to a vast height, and which seem by a vis centrifuga to fly with an incredible swiftness the centers of both the sun and comet, and to go off into tails of a scarce conceivable length. What may be the constitution of these cometical vapours, we inhabitants of the earth can know but little, and only that they are evidently excited by the heat of the sun; where as this meteor, if I may so call it, seldom is seen but in the polar regions of the world, and that most commonly in the winter months. But whatever may be the cause thereof, if this be not, I have followed the old axiom of the schools. Entia non esse temere neque absque necessitate multiplicanda.

Lastly I beg leave on this occasion to mention what, near 25 years since, I publish'd in No. 195. of these Transactions, viz. That supposing the earth to be concave with a lesser globe included, in order to make that inner globe capable of being inhabited, there might not improbably be contained some luminous medium between the balls, so as to make a perpetual day below. That very great tracts of the etherial space are occupied by such a shining medium is evident from the instances given in the first paper of this transaction; and if such a medium should be thus inclosed within us; what should hinder but we may be allowed to suppose that some parts of this lucid substance may, on very rare and extraordinary occasions, transude through and penetrate the cortex of our earth, and being got loose may afford the matter whereof this our meteor consists. This seems favoured by one considerable circumstance, viz. that the earth, because of its diurnal rotation, being necessarily of the figure of a flat spheroid, the thickness of the cortex, in the polar parts of the globe, is considerably less than towards the equator; and therefore more likely to give passage to these vapours; whence a reason may be given why these lights are always seen in the North. But I desire to lay no more stress upon this conceit than it will bear.

It having been noted that in the years 1575 and 1580, wherein this appearance was frequent, that it was seen not far from the times of the two equinoxes; it may be worth while for the curious, to bestow some attention on the heavens in the months of September and October next; and in case it should again happen, to endeavour to observe, by the method I have here laid down, what may determine, with some degree of exactness, the distance and height thereof; without which we can scarce come to any just conclusion.


A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 406).

  1. diversitas aspectus: the diversity of appearance []
  2. sub dio: under god []
  3. The foodnote indicated here is shown within the text as: