Archive for March, 2019

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of September and October, 1715 - Part IV.

Sunday, March 31st, 2019

Ⅳ. A ready description and quadrature of a curve of the third order, resembling that commonly call'd the Foliate. Communicated by Mr. Abr. de Moivre, F.R.S.

I have look'd a little farther into that curve which fell lately under my consideration. It is not the Foliate as I did at first imagine, but I believe it ought not to make a species distinct from it. AEB (Fig. I.) is the curve I thus describe. Let AB and BK be perpendicular to each other. From the point A draw AR cutting BK in R, and make RE=BR, the point E belongs to the curve draw BC making an angle of 45 grad. with AB, this line BC touches the curve in B; from the point E draw ED perpendicular to BC, and calling BD, x; DE, y;AB, a; and making √8aa=n the equation belonging to that curve is x3+xxy+xyy+y3=nxy or x4−y4x−y=nxy. Taking BG=AB, and drawing GP perpendicular to BG, PG is an asymptote. In the Foliate the equation is x3+y3=½nxy, in which the two terms xxy+xyy of the former equation are wanting; and its asymptote is distant from B by ⅓ BA. Again draw EF perpendicular to AB; let BF be called z and FE v; the equation belonging to the curve AEB is vv= azz−z3a+z. In the Foliate the equation is vv= azz−z3a+3z
From these two last equations it seems that these curves differ no more from one another than the circle from the ellipsis. I should be very glad to know your opinion thereupon.
The quadrature of the curve here described has something of simplicity with which I was well pleased. With the radius BA and center B describe a circle AKG, let the square HPST circumscribe it, so that HP be parallel to AG; prolong FE till it meet the circumference of the circle in M, and through M draw LMQ parallel to HP. The area BFE is equal to the area KHLM, comprehended by KH, HL, LM and the arc KM. And the area BFe is equal to the area KmLH or KMPQ. Therefore if BF and Bf are equal to the rectangle HQ and therefore the whole space comprehended by BEAXBeTGZ (supposing T and Z to be at an infinite distance) is equal to the circumscribed square HS.
N.B. This quadrature is easily demonstrated from the equation; for by it a+z:a−z::zz:vv, that is AF:EF::MF:FB, and so of the fluxion of AF to Ll the fluxion of MF. Hence the areola EFoe will be always equal to the areola MLlu, and therefore the area AEF always equal to the area MAL.
Hence it appears that this curve requires the quadrature of the circle to square it; whereas the Foliate is exactly quadrable, the whole leaf thereof being but one third of the square of AB, which in this is above three sevenths of the same. Again in our curve, the greatest breadth is when the point F divides the line AB in extream and mean proportion; whereas in the Foliate it is when AB is triple in power to BF. And the greatest EF or ordinate in the Foliate is to that of our curve nearly as 3 to 4, or exactly as ⁄√⅔√−⅓ to ⁄√5√5⁄4−5½.
But still these differences are not enough to make them two distinct species, they being both defined by a like equation, if the asymptote SGP be taken for the diameter. And they are both comprehended under the fortieth kind of the curves of the third oder, as they stand enumerate by Sir Isaac Newton, in his incomparable treatise on that subject.


A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 329).

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of June, July and August, 1715. - Part I.

Tuesday, March 26th, 2019

Ⅰ. Experimenta Barometrica pro varia diverst aeris elasticitate exploranda, in variis helvetiae locis, occasione excurfionis alpine, mense sept. anni preteriti suscepta. ope tubi 23 digit. parisin longi, 2 linn diametro. a Johanne Jacobo Scheuchzero, M.D. Math. P. Tigurino. & R.S.S

Columna prima notat aerem in tubo relictum. Secunda altitudinem mercurii fupra argenti vivi superficiem; tertia spatia aeris expansi. quarta notat descensum mercurii propter aerem relictum.

D. 6. Septembr. Tiguri, barometri totius altitudo hor. 8. ant. erat. 26 digit. parisiens. 4 linn. h. 9 ½ ero 26 digg. 4 ½ linn.


D. 1 I. Sept. in pascuo Alpino philo-trans-33
Montis Liberi, Glaronesis ditionis, h. I. pom. coelo sereno altitudo totius barometri 23. 10 bis.


12 Sept. h.7. ant. coelo sereno, philo-trans-53 jugo editiore Montis Liberi. Altitudo totius barometri 21. 8


D. 12. Sept. h.9. ant. coelo sereno, philo-trans-71 jugo editiore Montis Liberi, altitudo tot. barom. 21.6.



D. 14. Sept. h. 12. intra ipsam venam chalybis sarunetanam, 300. incirca passus ab ostio, coelo foris sereno. Barometri totius altitudo. 24. 4. & 24. 3.


Extra hanc venam metallicam sub dio eandem altitudinem observavi mercurii in barometro integro, item in 3 & 9 digg. aeris in tubo relict. sed notandum est aerem in intimis fodinae partibus, ubi experimenta feci, fuisse ob ignem praeterito die accensum (quo venam durissimam coquunt fossores) rarefactum, & locum hypocausti instar moderate calefactum.

N.B. Multis experimentis coram R. Societate factis compertum est, aeris comprissivires elasticas esse ut pondera comprimentia directe. His Cl. Schuechzeri observatis patct eandem in acre rarifacto obtinere regulam quam proxime; nam licet differentia aliqua reperiatur, tanta non est, ut ab inaqualite diametri tubinon facile oriatur. ut autem experimenta hacrite fiant, oportebit tubi capacitatem, immisso unciatim mercurio, in aquales partes dividi, loco partium longitudine equalium.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 266).

Reviewing reviews

Saturday, March 23rd, 2019

In my last post I reviewed the musician Gary Clark Jr., which sparked the following conversation:

mircea_popescu: aaahahaha this article of yours. say, you ever read zimbuzz ?
nicoleci: nah of course not
mircea_popescu: lemme fish it out for you.
mircea_popescu: read that article.
nicoleci: i did read this
nicoleci: we made fun of it
nicoleci: does mine sound like that?
mircea_popescu: a lot, yes.
nicoleci: jesus
mircea_popescu: for your own aedification : compare and contrast.
mircea_popescu: you know how to do that ?
nicoleci: i think so
mircea_popescu: do it as your next article then, lemme see.

Soo, here we go. I am starting with similarities and then the differences. Examples will be in the order of Kikky Badass by zimbuzz and then following from my post on Gary Clark Jr.

  • Album Announcements
  • The articles begin with arbitrary information by listing the details of when the album was released.

    Rapper and singer Kikky BadAss dropped her full-length release last Saturday at an exclusive launch at the Crown Plaza Hotel in Harare. The launch which was strictly by invite had all things glamorous as she launched her project “Queen of the South”

    Gary Clark Jr.'s new album, This Land, was released last month.

  • Comparison to established artists
  • Both I and 'zimbuzz' place emphasis on how the artist being reviewed is as talented as well established artists within the same genre. After comparing the reviews, this seems like a lazy attempt of appealing to the readers' possible interests.

    She gets help from friend Marcus Mafia, Shuver, Fucci and Jnr Brown, Like a bad ass she is, she proved to be wise beyond her years by standing head and shoulders (Or is it ass-tall) with the boys.

    At only 35, his music has the sound of a 1950's blues musician and can take a place next to both Buddy Guy and B.B. King. Gary Clark Jr. has entered into the league of legends

  • Creating history
  • Each article ends with similar claims in that the artist being reviewed will be notable for their future work.1

    When she released the much talked about video to Body Conversations, the sentiment was that she would need to prove herself more.
    This piece shows she is not a pushover and will remain a key figure in Zim Hip Hop for some time to come.

    At a time when the quality of music is dying, all is not lost as long as Gary Clark Jr. has a guitar.

    Another comparison is the obvious lack critical thought - shown by not listing any criticism of the artist. However, what stands out as the biggest similarity and possibly why the articles read so parallel, is that both lack any sort of narrative. The reviews read as a list rather than with any sort of structure.

    Moving on, I found minimal differences between the two reviews. The article on Kikky Badass goes into more detail about the her 'roots', collaborators, and how unique of an artist she is.2

    I was taking an eventful walk with Master around town; being schooled on almost every corner on the ways I could do better. I mentioned to him about how I had this review in my drafts folder and had not posted it because I was afraid of the feedback that I would receive. Long story short, two blocks later and I was crying on my knees for not realizing that, I often revert back to the unintelligent and easy way of doing things (among other reasons, of course). It's such an interesting life to not be afraid of kneeling on a busy city street corner while dressed as cheap as the common whore3, but to be afraid of criticism of bad writing. He was right then as he is right now. It's a much better existence to be called stupid on trilema than to merely exist as stupid.

    After all...
    mircea_popescu: TEH HUMILIATION INTENSIFIES!!!

    1. Reading it back this is type of cop out ending, because I didn't list anything substantive to back up the conclusion. []
    2. Unfortunately, if I had written a longer piece, I could see myself writing very similar things to these 'differences'. []
    3. This was before I was punished and had to walk around barefoot. []

    Gary Clark Jr.

    Saturday, March 23rd, 2019

    I'm currently listening to: Gary Clark Jr. - This Land, When I'm Gone.

    Gary Clark Jr.'s new album, This Land, was released last month. He has been crafting music for a decade, but if you are unfamiliar with this dynamic blues man then, I'd suggest clearing your night and starting with his previous album - The Story of Sonny Boy Slim.1

    At only 35, his music has the sound of a 1950's blues musician and can take a place next to both Buddy Guy and B.B. King. Gary Clark Jr. has entered into the league of legends by having released a trio of consistent and masterfully crafted albums. No gimmicks, no auto-tune, but timeless blues and soul. It's clear that he understands how to construct beautiful songs by selecting the correct melody, timing, and lyrics. The signature sound of his guitar produces a deep color that will have you rewinding the song in order to rehear the solos.2 Its more than worth your time to listen to the entirety of This Land, but Dirty Dishes Blues and The Guitar Man stand out as my favorites. At a time when the quality of music is dying, all is not lost as long as Gary Clark Jr. has a guitar.


    1. More specifically listen to the tracks - Can't sleep and Our Love. []
    2. If you prefer acoustic guitar then give Church a listen. []

    Philosophical Transactions. For the months of April, May and June, 1716. - Part III.

    Friday, March 22nd, 2019

    Ⅲ. A plain and easy experiment to confirm Sir Isaac Newton's doctrine of the different refrangibility of the rays of light.
    By the same.

    After the Experimentum Crucis made by two prisms, I shou'd not give the following experiment, but that it is so easy to be made, that by it those who want the apparatus (or are unwilling to be at the pains) to make the Experimentum Crucis, may at any time satisfy themselves of the truth of the fore-mention'd doctrine.
    Let the candle A be set before the bar of a chimney looking-glass, such as is represented by HH (Fig. 25.) which is a piece of looking-glass plate consisting of four planes, seen in the section of it af dB, viz. dB which is quick-silver'd behind, fa a plane parallel to it, fd one of the side-planes bezell'd towards dB, or inclin'd to it in an angle of about 40 degrees (tho' from 30 to 40 will do, but the greater the angle the better, if it does not exceed 45°.) aB the other side-plane inclin'd in the same angle to Bd.
    The rays of the candle which come from A to y fall obliquely on the plane aB, so that instead of going on to a, they are by refraction made to incline more towards the perpendicular pp, namely to go on in the line yc, and then are reflected from the point c on the quick-silver'd surface, in the direction cx, so as to make the angle xcd=ycB. Now as the rays which wou'd go to x, if not refracted, emergey obliquely from the plane aB, they leave the direction cx, and decline from the perpendicular ℼℼ, and, being differently refracted, open into four differently colour'd rays; viz. bR a red ray, b10 a ray mde up of orange and yellow; bGB a ray made up of green and blue or a sea green, and bP a purple ray.
    If from the place Ee you look full upon the point b, the spectrum or image of the candle at b will appear double, but not mix'd; that is, there will appear a sea-green spot and a red spot, as it were, one upon another; but not so as to produce a mix'd or intermediate colour. Then if the right eye or eye at E be shut, there will appear only a green spot to the eye at e; if the eye at e be shut, the eye at E will see only a red spot.
    If you come nearer to b, so that the eyes at EI, E2 receive the most and the least refrangible rays, there will be a double spectrum, viz. a red and a purple one just touching, or upon one another; and the phænomenon will answer as before. (Fig. 25.)
    If keeping both eyes open, you direct their axes towards O a point nearer than the usual place of the compound spectrum S, (Fig. 26.) which point is in a line from the nose N to the point S; or in other words, if you look full at O, or at the end of your finger held in O, the red and the blue (or purple spot) will appear to be divided from each other after the manner represented at pr (in Fig. 27.) where the red will appear to be on the right hand, and the blue on the left.
    To make plain what is meant by seeing the spectrap and r whilst we look full at O, I beg leave to explain the distinction between looking and seeing; that I may the better shew how this phænomenon proves that the sensation of different colours is caus'd by rays differently refracted.

    Ⅰ. Definition.

    The optic axis is a line which going thro' the center of the convexity of all the coats and humours of the eye, falls upon the middle of the retina, as aa or Aa Fig. 28.

    Ⅱ. Definition.

    To look at any point, is to turn both eyes towards it in such manner, that the optic axes making an angle at the said point as a, the rays from a may have the optic axis for their axis, and (by their convergence upon the retina after refraction in the eye) may paint the image of the said point upon the middle of the retina of each eye, where the optics axis in each eye falls.

    Ⅲ. Definition.

    To see without looking, is to direct the optics axes to some other place than to the point which is then seen; and in such a case, the image of the point seen will be projected upon a part of the retina of each eye, where the optic axis does not fall, namely either nearer to the nose N as in (Fig. 26.) at the points of the retina mark'd nn; or farther from the nose than the middle of the retina, as at oo in Fig. 29.
    Whatever is seen, by being look'd at with both eyes, always appears single, by reason of the communication between the middle of the retina in one eye, and the middle of the retina of the other; there being no such communication between any other part of the retina in one eye, and the correspondent part of the retina in the other, when these correspondent parts are equally distant from the nose.
    There is indeed a communication between the nervous fibres on the right side of the retina of one eye, and the nervous fibres on the right side of the retina of the other eye, and so of those on the left; but no single object can be so painted in each eye, as to have its image on the right or left part of one retina that communicates with the right or left part of the other, of the same bigness and at the same time as in the other; because in whatever position the object is, it must be nearer to one eye than to the other, except it be just in a line from the nose betwixt the two eyes streight forward.
    Hence it is that if there be two candles set before any one, the first at the distance of one foot, and the second at the distance of two feet, from the eyes; he that looks at the second candle at B will see it single, but see the first candle or the candle A double; one apperance being in the line ADy, the other in oAE, because it paints itself upon oo in the retina of each eye, which points are not the middle points, but farther from the nose than the middles mm.
    So if B be the fist candle, and C the second, he that looks at B will see C double, because it is painted in the retina at the points nn nearer the nose than mm; and so will appear to be in the same position as pr. in Fig. 27.
    If yq be two candles so disposed, Fig. 30. that by the interposition of a perforated board FF, y can paint itself only in the eye R, and p in the eye L. Upon making the optic axes meet at B and to tend towards p and y, p and y will each pain an image on the middle of the retina of each eye, by crossing their rays at B; and thus the two candles will appear to be but one, or rather to be in one place, upon the account of the communication of the middle of each retina. But if instead of the candles, q be a piece of red silk, and y a piece of green silk, the same position of the eyes will make an image at B, appearing like a red and green spot together without a mixture of the colours. If p be a red hot iron, and y a candle of sulphur, the phænomenon will be more distinct. If the optic axes be turn'd directly towards y and p, as if there was no board FF in the way, there will appear two holes in the board, the on having the red hot iron in it, the other the candle.
    Now if, of the refracted rays of the candle in the first case (Fig. 25.) those which diverge from each other, so as to fall into each eye, cause the same sensations respectively, as the rays which come from a red hot iron and those which come from a blue candle; it is evident that the candle in the first case affords red-making and blue-making rays after refraction, and that those rays are differently refrangible; the red bR (Fig. 25.) the least refrangible, as declining less from the perpendicular ϖϖ; and the purple as bP declining most from the said perpendicular.
    The same will (ceteris paribus) be found true in the intermediate rays; and to be certain that the experiment is as I have related it, the planes af and fd of the barr may be covered with paper.


    A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 448).

    Philosophical Transactions. For the months of July, August and September, 1716. - Part IX.

    Wednesday, March 20th, 2019

    Ⅸ. An account of a book. Dissertatio de Dea Salute, In qua illius symbola, templa, statuæ, nummi, inscriptiones exhibentur, illustrantur, auctore guilhelmo musgrave G.F. e Coll. exon. oxonii; typis leon. lichfield; impensis phil. Teo, bibliopolæExon. Anno MDCCXVI.

    The author of this treatise, as the occasion of it, observes that the little God Telesphorus had just cause to complain, that so much respect was paid to Dea Febris, and a book lately publisht de Dea Podagra, yet no such honour was done his Mother 'Tyiea, (who certainly was more to be esteemed, than all the tribes of diseases). Upon this conceit, he took what books he had in his reach, of the antient Latin and Greek, and having collected out of them, what he met with relating to this Goddess, put it together, as now it appears in print.
    It consists of VI chapters; of which the first is introductory, speaks of health in general, has, in praise of it, that memorable ode of Ariphron the Sicyonian, publisht by Athenaus, and translated by Sennertus; together with a hymn, said to be composed by Orpheus, on the same subject; he ranks this Goddess among the Dii Medioxumi, and gives an account of her from the mythologists.
    Chap. II. de Salutis Symbolo, which he takes to be a serpent, an omen of good things, and a frequent companion of the Gods; as appears from Virgil, Valerius Flaccus, Statius, and Macrobius. He mentions another symbolum salutis, used by Antiochus Soter, now to be seen in some of his coins, and sometimes printed in physick books in the following form.


    The III. chapter treats of the temples erected to this Goddess; in which prayers were offer'd up to her, sometimes for the health of private persons, and often for the welfare of the publick; of which many instances are here produced. To the account of temples is subjoyned the divination, known by the name of Salutis Augurium, which is often mentioned by Roman authors, as Dion Cassius, Tully, and Tacitus.
    In the IV, chapter, the statues of this Goddess are consider'd. Some of these represent her and æsculapius together, tamqum1, Pliny, Pausanias, Lucian, Plutarch and Monsaucon afford instances of this kind.
    Plutarch and Monsaucon afford instances of this kind.
    Coins relating to this Goddess, come next in view, Chap. V. These either express her effigies, or her worship under some symbol or other. Of the first order, one out of Fulvius Ursinus has the head of the Goddess, with SALUS inscribed. Another like this, is in gevartius. Some, together with this Goddess have also her father æsculapius as a coin of Trajan; and in one of Aurelius Antoninus, stuck in memory of the remedies reveal'd to him in a dream, which cured the Emperor of a sputum sanguinis and vertigo. As indeed most of these coins were (in all likelihood) struck on some such occasion, viz. the recovery of some great person. A noble expression of gratitude, fit and worthy of imitation.
    Of the second order is the coin of dossenus, having an alter with a serpent, taken from ursinus. Another of Tibererius, with an alter and SALAUG. Another of nero in which is a serpens tortuosus; with many others.
    The gemma of the antients, according to Leonardus Augustinus, are of use to set forth the sarcrifices made of old to this Goddess. One of these gemma represents æsculapius, his daughter Hygieia and grand-son Telesphorus so call'd2 a Valetudine post morbum confirmati. This God, being young and tender, had (I suppose, by the scare of his mother Hygiaa) a Bardocucullus, or cloket, to keep him from taking cold. These three Gods are represented in one figure, with the following inscription under them, EYZETEME, i.e. Salvere me Jubete, which Augustinus happily conjectures to have been a form of prayer offer'd up to them.
    In the last chapter come the inscriptions, which are taken out of Gruter and Reinesius. They are chiefly to æsculapius and Hygiaa, but to confirm the divinity of Telesphorus the little God of the Pergameni, he is mentioned in one of their inscriptions dug up at Verona.
    The author makes no manner of doubt, but there are many more coins and inscriptions relating to this Goddess to be found in other books. But these being all, or most of such as came in his way, and enough to give a specimen of the devotion paid by the antients to this Goddess, he has contented himself with this small number; leaving it to others to make such additions, as from greater opportunities and abilities, they shall think fit.

    A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 502).

    1. philotrans-2 []
    2. philotrans-3 []

    Philosophical Transactions. For the months of June, July and August, 1715. - Part III.

    Wednesday, March 20th, 2019

    Ⅲ. Observationes coelestes britannicæ, Grenovici in observatorio regio habita, anno MDCCⅩⅢ.


    N.B. Stella illa telescopica a qua die Januarii 25° lunam pracessit, ascensionem rectam tune habuit 81° 28 ½, & distabat a polo 66° 58' 20", unde fit longitudo ejus II 22° 9 123 cum latitudine australi o° 13' ½. Hac autem est ea ipsa stella ad quam applicabatur jupiter in statione secunda, anne 1634 Februatti 6, eamque non nisi tribus sui corporis diameris ad austrum reliquit, observante Gassendo ut habetur inter observata ejus pag 174. Et ad eandem Mars observatus est Septembris 6to anno 1644 mane, ut videre est in prolegomenis selenographia hevelianae pag. 65 & Fig. I. veram multum usui erit, ad accuratam nodi jovis determinationem, ejusque motus, si modo inter stellas fixas planum orbita Jovialis non bareat immobile. Etenim post decursum 83 annorum, quibus Jupiter satis accurate septem absolvit periodos, anna scil. 1717. Januarri 10. mane, planeta stellam illam corporaliter teget vel saltem stringet, spectaculo quidem raro neque hactenos quod sciam astronomis in jove concesso.

    Stella antem ipsa, etiamsi telescopica vocetur, sudo cælo & absente lunâ inermis oculi aclem non fugit; comitemque habet sequentem ad austrum,& semidiametro solis circiter distantem, apud quam conspicietur Jupiter arctissime conjunctus, die vicesimo julii anni proximi 1716 mane.

    A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 285).

    Philosophical Transactions. For the months of November and December, 1715. - Part V.

    Sunday, March 17th, 2019

    V. Remarks upon the aforesaid letter and teeth, by Thomas Molyneux, M.D. and R.S.S. physician to the state in Ireland; Address'd to his Grace the Lord Archbishop of Dublin.

    My Lord,

    When your Grace was pleased to communicato to me a letter you received some while since, containing an account of an extraordinary natural curiosity, lately discover'd in the North of Ireland, in the country of Cavan, you desired I would give you my thoughts concerning it, and the purport of the letter; but truly when first your Grace gave me the opportunity of perusing this account and I consider'd the imperfect sketches of the teeth annex'd to it, I was not a little concern'd, that upon the making so surprizing a discovery, I could not command a sight of the originals themselves, from whence the draughts were taken; or that so great a curiosity should be exprest by the hand of an artist that shew'd so little skill; however, by the best judgment I could make from so imperfect an information, I told your Grace then, I was pretty well convinced they must have been the grinding teeth of an elephant; yet I ingaged, if hereafter I might be so lucky as to procure a view of the teeth themselves, I would be more positive in my opinion, and give the reasons on which I grounded my conjecture; as likewise I would have the shape of the teeth exprest in their full dimensions, by more true and exact figures.

    Since that the four teeth, with some of the fragments of the bones that were found with them, have been brought here to Dublin, where, by the favour and assistance of my ingenious friend Sir Thomas Southwell, I procured the loan of them, so long as to examine them particularly, make some remarks, and take the following correct sketches, that express their from truly, just as big as the life; and your Lordship seem'd well satisfied with the performance of the artist, when at the same time I produced the draughts and the originals from whence they were copied, that we might compare them both together.

    Upon the whole, I am now fully convinced, and I can upon sure grounds affirm to your Lordship, that they must certainly have been the four grinding teeth in the lower jaw of an elephant; and that the many loose fragments of those large bones that were found with them, must have been remains of the same animal. This I take to be one of the greatest rarities that has been yet discovered in this country.

    In order to clear this matter 'twill be first requisite to have recourse to, and explain the annext figures.

    Figure the 1st. AA is the large grinder of the under jaw on the right side, weighing two pounds and three quarters of a pound.

    b.b.b.b.b.b.b. are white, rough, indented borders, seven in number, of an irregular shape, rising about the tenth of an inch higher than the hard black shining surface of the tooth; this rough raised work serves for the bruising and grinding the animal's food, the tough grains of rize, leaves, fruits and the boughs of trees; and is made of so extream an hard texture, that it resembles large knotted threads of white glass, laid on and closely fastned to the dark superficies of the tooth; and answers that glassy surface wherewith nature has armed the outside of the teeth of most animals, to prevent their wearing from the constant attrition in chewing of their foods.

    c.c.c.c.c. is that part of the tooth which rises above the gumms, and continues even now distinguish'd from the rest of the bone, by having its colour of a different shade.

    d.d.d.d.d.d.d. are many strong tangs of roots, seemingly unite altogether, by which the tooth received its sense and nourishment, and tho' it was so large and ponderous by these it kept firmly fixt into the jaw.

    For the mechanism nature shews itself to have followed in framing the teeth of this animal, is no more than this; whereas in other creatures, she has divided that bony substance wherewith they chew their food, each having its peculiar roots to secure its articulation in the jawbone; she has in this of so great bulk (as Pliny the Naturalist stiles it Terrestrium Maximum Elephas,) for the greater strength, stabiliment, and duration of it's teeth, and the better to provide for a compleat attrition of the aliment, in order to perfect the digestion so thoroughly, as to sustain the life of the animal for two or three hundred years (as it is a common received opinion on in the East) she has, I say, contrived to make the substance of the teeth in their roots below, and in the upper parts above the gumms, closely unite together; and coalescing thus, form a few large massy teeth instead of many small ones.

    As for instance, in man's body, that is of so much a less size, the number of teeth, (when the whole sett is compleat) reckons to thirty two, whereas in the large elephant, the teeth of both the jaws amount in all but to eight, besides it's two great tusks, which rather serve as horns for its defence than teeth to prepare it's food, and therefore I think not so very properly call'd teeth.

    Figure be 2d. E.E. is the smaller grinding teeth of the under jaw on the same side; it's surface covered over with the same white indented work, as before describ'd for grinding of the food.

    f.f.f. are three large roots that kept it firmly fixt in the jaw bone.

    This smaller tooth weighed full six ounces.

    Figure the 3d G.G. is the large grinder of the under jaw on the left side, much of the size and shape and weight with its fellow tooth describ'd figure the st. It shews its roots and all its parts, with the rough protuberant white work on its upper surface made after the same contrivance, and formed after the same strong model as the former.

    And truly if one considers it, 'tis plain that were not the teeth of this creature made of so large a size, and withal of so massy and firm a substance, 'twere absolutely impossible they could resist the force, and bear all that pressure wherewith those vast muscles exert themselves, that move the lower jaw in mastication in this so strong an animal.

    Figure the 4th. H.H. is the smaller grinding tooth of the under jaw on the same side; it is less compleat than the small tooth describ'd before in Figure 2d. for some of the root is wanting, and part of its outward grinding surface is broke off at k.k. so that it weighs somewhat less; yet what remains exactly shews the same kind of work and shape of the other tooth, that answer'd it on the right side.

    These four teeth here describ'd, fully compleat the sett of the teeth, wherewith nature has furnished the lower jaw of the elephant; and are answered by just as many more, formed after the same manner in the upper jaw, as Dr. Moulins informs us, who dissected the elephant that was burnt here at Dublin in 1681. In it's anatomy p.40. speaking of the teeth he assures, there were besides the tusks only four teeth in each jaw, two in every side; and that these eight teeth were all molares, so that he had no incisores.

    But notwithstanding this, perhaps it will be said, we may not hastily conclude from hence, that our great teeth dug up in Ireland must certainly have been the four grinders of an elephant, since they might as well belong to some other kind of terrestrial or marine animal. As for the hint of their being human or gigantick, 'tis so groundless a thought, and so contradictory to comparative anatomy and all natural history, it does not deserve our consideration.

    To observe this, I shall take notice first in general, that the differing kinds of living creatures, wherewith nature has stock'd the world, are not more distingusih'd by the make of any part of their bodies from one another than by the various shape and disposition of their teeth; and hence it is, we shall not find any two distinct classes of animals that do exactly agree in the same make and ranging of their teeth.

    But yet to be more particular, and make this point so plain, I hope, as that it may admit of no controversy, I shall here set down at length, as I find them the words of two late authors, that purposely have described the teeth of the elephant.

    The first I shall mention is Mr. Patrick Blair, who has publish'd a treatise he calls Osteographia Elephantina, or a description of the bones and other parts of an elephant, that died and was dissected near Dundee in Scotland, anno 1706. in the London Philosophical Transactions for April, May, June, July, August and September, 1710. Numb. 326 and 327. Here giving us a description of the teeth of this animal pag. 110. he says, Dr. Moulins well observes that they are all molares, being two inches broad in that part of them wherewith they grind, and six inches and a half long on the right side, and five inches and a half on the left their surface, tho' flat, is yet very unequal, for they have alternately placed, running from th right to the left side, an Hollowness and then an Eminence; and this Eminence is surrounded by a rough protuberant border. There are nine of these hollownesses and as many eminences, undulated as they paint sea waves.

    'Tis remarkable how very exactly all this agrees with our figures; 'tis true those hollownesses and eminences which he mentions to be nine, do not so nicely hit with the number of those in our teeth; but this difference proceeds from hence, that he describes here the grinders of the upper, whereas ours are the teeth of the lower jaw; tho' such a distinction as this, I am apt to think, may very well arise even in those of the same jaw, in various animals, from some peculiar disposition in one from another, nay and perhaps in the same animal, at differing times, according as it happens to be older or younger, but this by the bye.

    A littler farther pag. 114. and 115. where he gives an account of those of the under jaw, he says

    The hind tooth of the right side is four inches, and that on the left five; the one half of their surface, where they begin to appear above the gumms, is semicircular, with the forementioned ridges and sulci running transversly, four on the right side and five on the left, the other half (or tooth I suppose he means) has five of these eminences where it grinds on the right, and four on the left; each of the four teeth is six inches long, and has six or seven of the forementioned eminences as many depressions; these teeth are the most firm, solid and weighty bones of any animal yet known.

    So much from Mr. Blair.

    The other author I shall produce for the further illustration of this matter, is the laborious and accurate naturalist Mr. Ray, who, in his synopsis Animalium Quadrupedum, when he comes to give us the description of the elephant, has the following words. Os pro mole belua parvum, quatuor in utraque maxilla dentibus molaribus seu dentium molarium massis instructum; si quidem plutimi dentes in os solidum & durum ita infixi sunt, ut cum eo & inter se unum & continuum corpus efficiant. dentes hi lineas parallelas undulatas octo vel novem in superficie massa efficiunt; suntque reliquo osse candidiores; massa integra, dentium singularium modo, per gomphosin maxillis inseruntur. incisoribus omnino caret.

    Thus Mr. Ray in very proper and expressive terms describes the teeth of this animal; and truly if your Grace will but compare Mr. Blair's words with his, and the particulars of both accounts with the description and figures we have before given of the teeth dug up in Ireland, and observe how they all agree exactly, even so as one may say they tally together, I think it will amount to nothing less than demonstration, and that all our ideas have been taken from one and the same natural object; and as they, so we, must certainly have described no other teeth but those of the elephant.

    But then perhaps it will be ask'd what is become of all the rest of the teeth that were in the upper jaw, which being as firm and solid bones as those that are her preserved, might for the same reason have still remained intire.

    But since we find it otherwise, 'tis obvious to imagine a probable conjecture how this might come about. From what Mr. Nevil mentions in his letter, 'tis plain that the bed where all these bones were found, must once have been the outward surface of the earth, the green-sod, producing rushes, fern and nutts; and when the heavy beast first fell dead upon this spot, the skull, with all the bones and teeth of the upper jaw, being the highest parts of the animal, might likely fall in such a posture, as to be exposed some while above the earth; tho' those of the under jaw first coming to the ground, might make themselves a bed, and being covered with the mould remain preserv'd, whilst the upper teeth, and most of the other bones, lying exposed to the injuries of the air and weather, before they got a covering, might rot and quickly moulder all away.

    But tho' this be allowed, yet still a greater difficulty remains unsolv'd; how this large body'd animal, a native of the remote warm climates of the world, should be deposited in this wild Northern Ireland, (where Greeks or Romans never had a footing) so many miles from the sea, and distant from those places of the Isle where people might most probably resort.

    And still to make the difficulty yet greater, we must consider, not only from the dark black colour of the teeth, contracted by their lying long under ground, and the remarkable alteration wrough on their bony substance, which (by the mineral streams and exhalations it has imbib'd whilst it was in the earth) is now become more solid, hard, and ponderous, than it was naturally at first, (nay in some parts we find it plainly petrified) but also from the perishing of all the other bones of the animal's body, and from the considerable depth of earth that covered those that were found; we must conclude, I say, from hence, that they have lain in this lace for many centuries; 'I won't say with Mr. Nevil ever since the flood, because I can't suppose that the flight texture of vegetable substances, nutts and the seeds of the rushes, could possibly have been preserv'd so long; but this, at least, may safely be affirmed, that these remains must be contemporaries with some of the remote ages of the world; which carries us so far back into the earliest times, that we can ne'er imagine the rude inhabitants of Ireland, or any of their neighbouring countries, were masters of so much art, in those days of ignorance and darkness, as to make carriages by sea strong and capable or of curiosity and politeness enough, to transport a beast of this large size from those far distant countries where 'twas bred; which they that now attempt do find a work of vast care, trouble and expence, even in this age wherein navigation is brought to such perfection.

    These considerations, my Lord, grounded on other instances of the like kind, make me inclined to think this elephant we are speaking of, might not be brought hither by any care or industry of man; but the surface of this terraqueous globe might, in the earliest ages of the world, after the deluge, but before all records of our oldest histories, differ widely from its present geography, as to the distribution of the ocean and dry-land, its islands, continents and shores, so as to allow this beast, and others of its kind, for ought I know, that may be some such accident hereafter be luckily discovered, a free and open passage into this country from the continent.

    For otherwise, how can we e're explain that that other vast large stately animal the moose-deer, little inferior to the elephant itself, could have been brought to Ireland, (where elsewhere I have shewn it formerly was common) from distant North America, even long before that quarter of the world was known, and is the only region I can hear, where this great beast is found at present.

    And can we well imagine that foxes, otters, badgers, tigers, wolves, with linxes and such ravenous animals as we have been told, have lately been discovered by the great snows that fell this present winter in the Island of Sardinia and other places, should ever be imported (being useless noxious beasts of prey) by the industry of man, to propagate in Islands, that they might destroy men's food and flocks, and make their lives not only uneasy but unsafe?

    Nay how can we suppose that birds of shortest flight, the various sorts of poisonous serpents, and of offensive creeping vermin, with all the various tribes of smaller insects, could possibly be found in Islands, unless they had been stock'd with those inhabitants when the intercourse between them and the continent was free and open.

    But in whatever manner this elephant (to return to our subject) might first have made its way for Ireland; this is beyond dispute, that the bones of elephants have been discovered deep under ground, in other places as well as this kingdom; and those too out of the way, far distant from the native countries of this animal.

    For not many years ago, in a hill near Erfurt, a town of the upper Saxony in Germany, several parts of the skeleton of an elephant were dug up; on which occasion Wilhelmus Ernestus Tentzelius historiographer to the Duke of Saxony, writ a letter to the very learned Antonio Magliabechi, Library Keeper to the great Duke of Florence. This treatise is published, but I have not been so lucky as to procure a sight of it, and know no more but just the title-page Wilhelmi Ernesti Tentzelii Historiographi Ducalis Saxonia Epistola, de Sceleto Elephantino Tonna nuper effosso, and Antoniam Magliabechium, Magni Ducis Hetruria Bibliothecarium.

    And I am well persuaded, by the the best construction I can make of those imperfect and obscure accounts, we have in Evert Isbrand Iddes curious travels from Muscovy to China over land; Chap. the 6th, (which he confesses he only gathered from the barbarous Ostiacks inhabitants of that country) concerning the vast teeth and bones and limbs of philo-trans-25 as he calls them, frequently found (and diligently sought after to make profit of them) in the hills, and banks of several rivers in Siberia, the Keta, Fenize, Trugan, Montgamsea and Lena; that they are nothing else but the remains and skeletons of elephants buried there, and accidentally discovered by the Earth's opening, and falling down on the sudden thaws, after severe long frosts. But of this, please to consult the author, whose words are too prolix to be inserted here.

    But to bring this matter still nearer home to ourselves, Mr. Cambden in his Britannia is of opinion, that those great monstrous teeth and bones, which he takes notice to have been at several times dug up in many parts of Great Britain, must have been the remains of elephants; but then he thinks, they must be of those that Dion Cassius the Historian, tells us, the Roman Emperor Claudius brought over, when he made his expedition into that Island. But that this truly is so, I own is but surmise as yet, and had not been so fairly proved by him or any other, as that we can rely upon't with satisfaction.

    What Mr. William Somner the learned Antiquary has published in his discourse of Chartham News is more remarkable; (this is reprinted lately in the Philosophical Transactions for July 1701. No. 272.) where he informs us, that in the year 1668 in the village of Chartbam near Canterbury in England, digging within 12 rods of a river, they found a parcel of strange monstrous bones, some whole, some broken, together with four teeth perfect and sound, each weighing something above half a pound, and some of them almost as big as a Man's fist. They are all cheek-teeth or grinders; the earth in which they lay being like a sea earth, or fulling earth with not a stone in it.

    'Tis observable how this account in many of it's circumstances, agrees with that of Mr. Nevil in his letter to your Grace; as that the teeth were all grinders, four in number found with other large broken bones near a brook, and in a claiey earth, without a stone; but then the weight and magnitude of our largest teeth, so far surpass those that were found in England, that these did not come up to a fifth part of those, which shows they could not be the teeth of the same animal. I must confess the author does not so much as suspect they were elephant's teeth, but on the contrary is of opinion that they belong'd to another species, the hippopotamus or river-horse, a beast that's yet a greater stranger in these parts of the world, than the elephant itself; and therefore it's passage hither can never be accounted for, but by some such like supposition as we have made.

    However Mr. John Luffkins in his letter, wherein he designs to have reference to that discourse; and which is inserted in the Philosophical Transactions for Sept. 1701. No. 274. differs in his judgments from Mr. Somners about these teeth; as he is positive those large bones he describes in the same letter, and found near Harwich in Essex, certainly must have been.

    Not having seen, much less examined, any of the bones or teeth concern'd in this controversy; either those that were found in Kent or those in Essex; I cannot well take upon me to determine anything in this matter; tho' those dug up at Chartham, as I understand, may still be perused by the curious among the natural rarities of the Royal Society in their repository at London. But this at present I can safely say, that if the figures of the teeth given us by Mr. Somner, and represented in the plate of the foremention'd Transaction No. 272. be genuine and well exprest (as I have no reason to doubt, as coming from one so skilful and so accurate) they no way seem to agree either in shape or make, or in that particular and characteristick work on the grinding supersicie, with the teeth of the elephant; or with the description and figures we have given, which I am sure are both correct and natural.

    I should now, my Lord, make some apology for detaining your Grace so long upon what may seem so light and trivial a subject, a piece of meer curiosity; but I am so vain as to hope, whatever others may fancy, it may not appear so inconsiderable altogether to your Lordship's more discerning judgment.

    For I am inclined to think, (even from these imperfect hints) that if we had more correct histories and observations of this kind, made in distant countries, and skilfully registered, with all their instructive circumstances, they might lead us into great and momentous truths relating to the Deluge; to the wise methods of providence, in replenishing all regions of the world with animal beings soon after the flood; and to the knowledge of several important changes that may have happen'd on the surface of this our terraqueous globe; inquiries that are truly worthy the utmost application of the most learned Divine and the most sagacious philosopher.

    But I shall stop here, and only beg leave to subscribe myself, with the utmost respect,

    My Lord,
    Your Graces most devoted
    faithful and humble servant.
    T. Molyneux.

    This letter of Mr. Nevile with Dr. Molineux's curious draughts of the teeth and his learned remarks upon them, having been produced and read before the Royal-Society, they ordered that what teeth they had of like sort should be look'd out and laid before them; to which Sir Hans Sloane was pleased to furnish a yet greater variety, out of his incomparable collection of natural rarities. And to obviate all doubts, there being at this time in Westminster the entire skull of a large elephant with the teeth in it, that was likewise ordered to be viewed and compared with the figures; which done, it appeared that the teeth in question could no other than those of an elephant.

    By this enquiry we were likewise satisfied, that the number of teeth found, being but four, was no objection; it appearing that the number of molares in this animal is not certain. Pliny Lib. XI. Cap, 37. says exprestly Dentes Elephantointus ad mandendum quatuor, praeter eos qui prominent. And in the remains of that mighty elephant described by Tenzelius. Phil. Trans. No. 236, there were no more than four teeth found. In that at Westminster there are six, viz. One in each lower jaw, and two in each of the upper, whereof the inner tooth is about three times as long as the other, and both together longer than those of the under jaw by about an inch; the upper small teeth being much worn by grinding. These we have thought fit to represent by Fig. 5. shewing the rough grinding surface of the left under tooth, being considerably concave; and by Fig. 6. the same roughness on the upper teeth is shewn, having a convexity tallying with the concavity of the under, which is a circumstance not observed by any of those that have described them.

    And also, by the observation of Mr. Du Verney, Dr. Moulins, and Mr. Blaire, who dissected three different elephants, it appear that each of them had eight molares; yet from them it is also evident that in the division of them nature observes no rule, for Mr. Moulins found the two teeth in each of the upper jaws of that he dissected, to be divided after a different manner; so that the inner tooth on the one side, and the outer on the other, was bigger than its adjoining fellow, yet not so as to be very unequal; and Mr. Duverney and Mr. Blaire had on both sides the much greater tooth outwards; whereas the Westminster-skull on the contrary, has only a small one outwards, and the much greater grinderwithin. All which considered, we may with assurance conclude, that this elephant found in Ireland had but four teeth in his head when he died; and that the two greater were those of the upper jaws, and the other two those of the under.

    Again, by the size of the grinding part, we may conclude these to be the teeth of a very young and small elephant; since they are not much above half the length of those that are to be seen at Westminster, which belonged to a beast of not more than between 10 and 11 foot high; nor much above one third of the length of a fossile elephant's grinder in the Royal Society's repository, the which is here represented by Fig. 7. (all the figures being drawn to the scale of half their true dimensions). Hence it is not to be marvelled that the bones of so young an animal, having not acquired their firmity, as being in a growing state, should be dissolved by lying in the earth, as also the roots of the teeth.

    On this occasion, perhaps it may not be amiss to quote a passage out of Mathew Paris his History, who assures us, that in his time Louis IX. (afterwards St. Louis) King of France, made a present of an elephant to his contemporary Henry III. of England; and that in the year 1255, after the English had been fourscore years master of Ireland. Of this says Mathew, Nec credimus quod unquam aliquis elephas visus est in Anglia praeter illum.


    A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 370).

    Clean Getaway.

    Thursday, March 14th, 2019

    Besides writing poor summaries, I have another terrible fault of pushing people away. It's something that I've been aware of since I was 13. Most of my struggle in relationships start when I really let myself become attached and happy. I've had periods in my life when I was better at handling attachment, but it takes a lot of work and awareness. When something traumatic happens (insert kidnapping), I tend to revert back to my old ways of pushing people away from fear of loss. It's not something I'm at all proud of. I tend to keep my distance from any real relationships out of fear of hurting that person and myself.

    I was two when my mom died from breast cancer. Thankfully, I don't remember anything from that time of of my life. My earliest memories revolve around me crying on the couch about missing her while my dad aggressively told me he'd, "take me to the hospital if I didn't stop". Coincidentally, the other earliest memory I have is of him crying about her and begging me not to tell anyone about his breakdowns. My brothers and father had a lot of anger about her death that they took out on me. I handled it by being sad a lot of the time and with a desperation to learn anything about her in order to understand myself. However, my dad wouldn't tell me many details about her, besides that she was a really good person and had a kind heart. I never asked him more about her because I thought it may be hurtful for me to press for more information. Secretly, I always wanted to know her favorite color or what made her happy or sad. My brothers and I also had a silent understanding to never discuss her death.

    After my mother, Nancy, died my grandmother moved in and raised my brothers and I. For a lot of years it was extremely stressful watching my grandma and my dad butt heads. My dad was afraid of losing anyone after my mom died and my grandmother wanted us to live. I had a lot of surreal moments as a child being in school on mother's day or on bring a parent to school day. Some of the moments consisted of me realizing that I was one of those kid's with a dead parent or is that what having a mom is really like. That being said, my grandmother was wonderful and did the best to make sure we had the knowledge we needed. She taught me to read, not to be afraid of life, and be independent. More than that though, she tried to preserve our childhood the best she could and after having the experience of raising her own four boys, was ready to go toe to toe with my dad's anger. After my grandmother saw how hard my dad was on my brothers and I, she became my greatest ally and friend. This continued to the required train rides to Pennsylvania that she took us on on to visit my mother's mom and brother.

    I loved riding the train with my brothers and grandma. We all woke up at 5AM to catch the earliest Amtrack train, which was next to a terrible smelling soap factory. I would arrange my stuffed animals on the seats, like they were riding the train with me and explained to them about the different cabins. Being in motion was always a safe feeling for me, my brothers and dad left me alone while we were on the way somewhere. My mom's brother, my Uncle Jeff, would met us at the train and take us to his and my other Grandmother Faye's house in Johnstown, Pennsylvania. My grandma would leave after a few days - leaving my brothers and I alone with my Grandma Faye and Uncle Jeff for about three weeks. This is when my nightmare started. My brothers had full authority to do whatever they wanted to me, which mostly consisted of calling me names and beating me up. For a long time, I could never understand why my Uncle Jeff and Grandma Faye didn't do anything to stop them. More than that, they both would pay special attention to my brothers by buying them lots of stuffed animals (which my brothers didn't really want) while not giving me anything or making fun of me with them. My Uncle Jeff would take them on lots of trips while leaving me alone to do nothing. I would cry when they hurt me and then get yelled at in the process.

    My dad married my step-mother when I was around 12. This was hard for me because my dad had my grandma move out and my new step-mom move in. I felt the pain of losing someone who provided so much safety for me. I had trouble adjusting to the new dynamic and felt isolated. My brothers were always together and my dad and step-mom were now always together. My step-mom did get my dad to stop yelling at us, which was a huge relief; however, his meanness and depression never ceased. I was about 13 when, my step-mother revealed to me that my mother chose not to have chemo therapy for her breast cancer because she was pregnant with me and necessarily affirming her death. Knowing this destroyed me for many many months. My father asked me not to blame myself because, "that's not what she or any woman would want". He also told me that my Grandma Faye and Uncle Jeff had a hard time seeing me because I looked and reminded them so much of my mom. To my dad's credit, I never told him what happened on those trips but as soon as he saw it, he stopped me from going there. I took on this survivors guilt of blaming myself for any pain my family had because I was the reason my mother died. My anxiety was out of control for a while to the point of me not being able to sleep and my teacher getting involved. Finally, I made living amends by telling myself that I would be very kind to everyone that I could, in order to justify being alive, and further than that, I would live for two people, my mother and I.

    This isin't meant to be a sad story for me. My mother gave me such a beautiful gift and perspective on the world. I have always considered myself fortunate for having experienced death and loss at such an early time in my life.

    Since my mother's death, life has granted me many other other people to lose, from good friends to now my entire family. All of this pain has caused me to start to again, anticipate the eventual separation from the people I care most about, and therefore, pushing them away before I really get hurt. It's no way to live and it's the furthermost thing from kind. No matter how much I try to avoid loss, life will always be uncontrollable. All lessons are cheap while we are alive. I know its worth attaching to others to spite that they may not always be there, just like I know that we can chose to see hard times as a destruction or a blessing. I chose to see them as a blessing and I hope you will chose to do the same.


    Philosophical Transactions. For the months of July, August and September, 1716. - Part VIII.

    Wednesday, March 13th, 2019

    Ⅷ. Observations on the glands in the human spleen; and on a fracture in the upper part of the thigh-bone. By J.Douglass, M.D. and R.S.S.

    That anatomy, as well as physick and surgery, has received much improvement from a careful and true observation of what was found in the dissection of morbid bodies, will appear from the two following instances, among many more that might be adduced for that purpose. For it is certain, that nothing has contributed so much towards forming a right notion of nature of the several diseases, and a true knowledge of the structure of many parts of the human body, as their appearance in a preternatural state.
    My first observation is of the glands visible to the naked eye, that appear dispersed thro' the fibrous substance of the human spleen. The subject I found them in, was a boy of about 4 or 5 years old, that died of general atrophy, or consumption of all the muscular fleshy parts of the body, occasioned without all doubt from the numerous glandulous swellings scattered up and down the whole mescentery; which by compressing the lymphatick vessels, called in this place vasa lactea, prevented the access and supply of the chyle, so necessary for the continued nourishment and increase of the parts. For without the constant recruit of this whitish balsamick liquor, the mass of blood will in a short time be unfit to perform any of those good offices, which a fresh accession of chyle qualifies it for.
    In a piece of this spleen we might see, without the assistance of a glass, several round whitish bodies of a pretty hard consistence, and abundance of small white and softer specks; but both of the same nature. These, to me at least, appear to be so many distinct glands become visible; which in a natural state are only to be seen by a fine glass, as the curious malpighius first observed. Vid. his treatise de Liene, Cap. V. de quibusdam corpribus per lienem dispersis. Minima ha glandula, says he, non aque facile sese produnt in quocunque animalium liene; imsola Lienis laceratione innotescunt in Bove, Ove, &. In homine vero dissicilius emergunt; si tamen ex morbo unlversun glandularum genus turgeat, manifestiores redduntur, auita ipsaraum magnitudine, ut in defuncta puella observavi; in qua lien globulis conspicuis racematim dispersis totus scatebat. Which case was the very same with mine.
    The second observation. We had still been in the dark, about the nature of luxation of the head of the thigh bone, had we not carefully examined the part in the dead body. For by that sort of enquiry, the common mistake of surgeons was detected, and what was esteemed and treated by them as a luxation of the head of the femur, was discover'd to be nothing else but a fracture of the same bone, near its neck; the globular head being still retained close in its own socket, called the acetabulum coxendicis.
    Amongst all the writers of surgery and anatomy, I know but three that were apprised to this mistake. The first was Ambrose-Parec, the second Dr. Ruysch at Amsterdam, and Mr Cheselden, a member of the Royal-Society; whose obvervations on this subject I intend to communicate at another time, together with an account of the true structure of this joint; all in which I will consider the depth of the articulation; the wonderful strength of the muscles that surround it; the many strong ligaments that bind the head within the socket; the smallness of the neck of the bone; its poreous and spungy substance, which makes it much weaker than the rest; and last of all the disadvantages oblique position of this neck, which exposes it the more to outward accidents. From a review of such like considerations, it will plainly appear that a fracture can much more easily happen, than a dislocation in that part from an external cause.
    This os femoris belonged to an old woman turn'd of fourscore, who only fell from her chair whereon she was sitting, and thereby suffered this breach of continuity in the substance of the bone. She lived three weeks after it; and tho' it never was reduc'd ,yet she complained of very little or no pain, which may seem very extraordinary. It is observable that the fracture is not only oblique, near the neck of the bone; but that each trochanter, i.e. the two processes near its cervix, are likewise broke short off; and that they were both drawn up almost as high as the head of the bone itself, by the strong contraction of the glutci and other muscles.

    A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 499).