Archive for December, 2018

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of January, February and March, 1714 - Part IV.

Monday, December 31st, 2018

IV. A Recipe: Or the ingredients of a medicine for the spreading mortal distemper amongst cows: Lately sent over from Holland, where a like distemper raged amongst the black cattle.1

Recipe veronica, pulmonarie, hissopi, scordii, ana m ivrad, aristolochie rotundo, gentiana, angelica, petasitidis, tormentilla, carlina, and unc. 12. bac lauri & funiperi, ana unc. 12. misc. fiat pulvis.2
Bleed the cow3, and give her every morning, for 3 or 4 mornings, an ounce of this powder with a horn in warm beer. If the cow's illness continues, after omission of 2 or 3 days, repeat the medicine for 3 or 4 days again.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 50).

  1. This entry was titled in the contents page as: A recipe: Or the ingredients of a medicine for the late spreading distemper amongst cows. Sent lately from Holland, where it was made use of with success. []
  2. The Netherlands lost 70% of cattle due to what is called the cattle plague. Some farmers lost little to no cattle and because of demand became very wealthy. []
  3. But not these cows! []

The Tippecanoe River

Saturday, December 29th, 2018

The first eighteen years of my life were spent in Highland, which is a small town in Indiana. I grew up with my single dad and two brothers in a blue house with three rooms. The town consists of maybe 20,000 people in 7 square miles - one high school and a corn field on every other corner. To continue on with this Norman Rockwell painting, my dad worked at one of the few surviving steel mills, Arcelormittal. Highland exists in the county of Northwest Indiana, which is known for being a big player in the steel industry. A large portion of the elderly are barely surviving off of pension checks from the closed down US Steel corporation. Most working adults either worked at the steel mill, the utility company, a hospital, or they travel the hour it takes to work downtown Chicago. Northwest Indiana has a certain suffocating culture that I haven't experienced outside of the Midwest. Growing up, it always scared me that no one ever spoke about how new industries or companies were never developed in the area. Sure, you can find as many diners as you can cornfields, but nothing profitable was ever built and I imagined one day waking up to find a ghost town. The accepted ideal was that change is bad and everyone should be striving for a past that was left covered in grain dust. My dad, Bruce, always seemed personally offended that I wouldn't subscribe to the idea that living in Indiana didn't suck. He was perfect for Highland, its like he was crafted out of clay to exist there. My brothers and I always teased him about being born with a hat and mustache, and his standard uniform was a flannel shirt or t shirt combination with jeans. When he was eighteen, he bought a cabin on the Tippecanoe River, which is about two hours south of Highland. The only summer vacations we ever had were at that cabin, which was dubbed - 'The River'.

As a child, I was forced to tag along with my dad to the river. Often enough my brothers were left alone or escaped to a friends house, which was fine for me because I enjoyed the alone time with my dad. The drive there became comforting for me. This was in part because, those weekends at the river were the only time in which I saw my father relax. While driving there we would listen to music from the 60s and 70s and talk about everything. The man had a tragic life and took that pain out on my brothers and I.
My father has three brothers (which includes his twin) and he hardly knew his father, as he was an absent alcoholic. Unfortunately, my grandfather died when my dad was only in his twenties. He also lost one of his brothers and then my mom soon after I was born. He was known for only having two moods - which consisted of being either extremely angry or depressed. It was evident he never thought he would be a single parent, as his parenting style was based mostly on anger and being hypervigilant. However, this did provide some hilarious stories for my brothers and I to compare as we got older. One being that, he used to tell us not to ride our bikes to close to the banks of the river because a monster would pull us in and every single time we left the house he told us to not do anything stupid. I stopped blaming him for the disproportional anger and unhappiness, which I attribute to the time we spent together at the river.
When we arrived there, it took my dad about thirty minutes to get the place in livable condition (he mowed the grass, turned on the hot water, checked for spiders ..etc). It took me no time, since there was no internet, no cell service, and the closest town was a hour away. The cottage was in the middle of nowhere, surrounded by many miles of corn fields (I doubt I could even find it now), and we had no neighbors. Cornfields were directly in front of the house and the river flowed in the back. This is where I learned how to respect nature, dock and drive a boat, and fish. We would spend our time leisurely hanging about and the music was always on. The isolated river was the only place for me to pretend. I spent hours in my own imagination: playing like I had befriended a bear, was at the battle of Tippecanoe, or queen of the river. A few years ago, my dad recounted to me of how one night, I was rushing in and out of the cabin while he continuously asked me what I was doing. I would run by him saying "nothing" over and over. Finally, I stopped and he came into my room to find me laying in bed, with my hands behind my head and the light off. I had filled the room with glowing fireflies. It was easy to be a child with him at the cottage because of how happy he was. Indiana isint worth much but watching the sunsets with my dad over the fields are unforgettable. The weekends spent there always felt short and I was usually in a sad panic when we left. My dad almost never missed work and spent three days out of the week working over time, so the hope of an extra day there just didn't exist. I dreaded heading back to Highland because I knew that our happiness would stay with the fireflies.
It was difficult growing up with him and trying desperately to see him happy. As I got older, I tried to focus on the good things he instilled, instead of his depression. For all he had been through, he never drank, beat us, and it was obvious that he loved us very much. My dad saved a house that started on fire from blowing up and on hot summer days would leave the mail men water. The first accident I got into was when I was sixteen. Whenever I left the house he told me to not let anything happen to the car, which I really took seriously! This is because he never called me about how 'trips to Best Buy' with my friends took all night. A guy hit me from behind and I hit the car in front of me. The man of the family I hit was a pissed army vet and screamed at the guy who bumped into me. We all waited for the police to show up and chatted while ignoring the guy who caused the accident. I'll never forget that when my dad showed up, he moved passed us all to talk to that guy we were ignoring. Later on he told me that, the guy who hit me was an ambulance driver, who was working a 12 hour shift and we wouldn't be calling insurance. Another gem that I found out while driving with him to the river was a story about what he did for my mom. My mom, Nancy, was from Pennsylvania and didnt have much money after moving to Indiana by herself. She moved into a cheap apartment and walked thirty minutes (regardless of the weather) to the train stop to work in Chicago. When she was visiting her mother in Pennsylvania, my dad surprised her by replacing all of her old furniture with brand new sets. This being the most romantic thing I've ever heard him do. However, the best thing about him was his somewhat sarcastic sense of humor. He could actually laugh at himself and didn't get mad at me for being a smart ass. Some of my favorite moments were seeing him crack a smile while screaming, because he knew that I got him good. This was probably because he would take the opportunity to roast my brothers and I just as hard. One of my favorite jokes he made at someones expense was when my brother was looking for a job. My brother told my dad that this company he was applying to would pay for his relocation, and my father's unexpected response was, "oh yeah - you would be a cheap ass relocation, all they would need to pay for is an uber and a garbage bag." It was like the Def Comedy Jam in our house and I'm forever grateful to be able to laugh myself through tough situations. He wont ever know he taught me, but being able to look for the best in someone is a precious lesson I learned by loving him.
My dad sold the cottage about five years ago and after his retirement. I was sad to see it go and I miss it now more than ever. I try not to take anything for granted, but I wish I had a warning that I would never see him smile so carefree again. I wish I could have another chance to spend a two hour car ride talking to him about life while listening to music. Its true that the only thing constant in life is change. The river isint the same as much as him and I aren't the same people now as we were then. From a young age, I had always hoped that one day my dad would allow himself to experience some sort of happiness in life - he never did. For him and for me, I'll do my best to enjoy moments for what they are now and for as much as what they wont be someday.

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of September and October, 1715 - Part III.

Thursday, December 27th, 2018

III. Ventriculus cordis sinister1 stupendae magnitudinis,
lately communicated to the Royal-Society by
James Douglas, M.D.2 and R.S.S

I lately opened a young man in St. Bartholomew's hospital, that died of the palpitation of the heart, whole violent beating and prodigious subsultory motion, for some months before his death, was not only easily felt by laying the hand on the region of the heart; but seen to rise and fall by raising the bedcloaths that covered it. And, which is almost incredible, at sometimes the trembling and throbbing made such a noise in his breast, as plainly could be heard at some distance from his bedside. This was accompanied with frequent deliquiums3, sometimes slow, sometimes swift, and often intermitting.
Johannes Fernelius in his Pathologia lib. 5. cap. 12: gives us an observation of a very uncommon and surprising case of this kind; where he says the frequent concussion of the heart was so violent and powerfull, as not only to displace or luxate, but even to break some of the adjoining ribs.
Franciscus cus de la Boe Sylvius4, another writer of unquestionable integrity, has a parallel observation in his account of this disease.
Theodorus Kerkringius relates the history of a woman he opened, whole heart was of a prodigious bigness; in his Spicilegium Anatomicum, Obs. 16.
And to mention no more, Monsieur Dionis, at the end of his anatomy, gives a large description of a very uncommon case, in which the right auricle of the heart was prodigiously dilated to the bigness of the head of a new born child.
In the dissection of this morbid heart I observed the following remarkable particulars.
I. That the pericardium or capsula cordis was very thick, and firmly adhered or grew by a fibrous connexion to all the outer surface of the heart.
2. Instead of the water called liquor pericardii, there was only in some places about the basis of the heart a mucilaginous clear substance like a gelly.
3. In the right auricle lay'd open there was nothing preternatural. The ascending and descending cava opened into the same as usual. The vestigium or mark of the foramen ovale5 with its semicircular limbus was very plain. And the oriscium of the vena cordis coronaria was extreamly large, yet its valve was less than usual.
4. In the right ventricle layed open, the valvula called tricuspides were configurate after the usual manner. The sides of this cavity were thin and full of small fleshy columna as they commonly are, with great variety of furrows and little holes. The three sigmoide or semilunar valves in the mouth of the arteria pulmonalis, were as they always are in a natural state.
5. The left auricle was not much bigger than ordinary: but its muscular appendage, called the bulb of the pulmonary vein by the late Mr. Cowper, was extraordinarily dilated and enlarged beyond any thing that I ever saw.
6. The left ventricle, whose capacity in a natural state is always less than the right, was here considerably larger. And if the experiment had been made, before dissection, or filling both with any liquor, this had certainly contained three times more than the other.
7. The valvule called mitrales, placed at the orifice of this ventricle, are much thicker in substance than ordinary; and the two fleshy columns, called by Nicolaus Massa, almost 200 years ago, duo parvi musculi, which send out abundance of small tendons to be inserted into these valves, were proportionably augmented in bigness.
8. The semilunary valves in the mouth of the aorta, or of the great vena pulsatilis that dispenses the blood to all the several parts of the human body, were very much preternaturally affected; as would easily appear upon comparing them with those in the orifice of the pulmonary artery, in which they are thin and very broad, so as to be able to shut the cavity of that vessel and hinder the blood from returning back into the ventricle, and likewise transparent: but in this they are very thick, contracted as it were, and furled together, and of a whitish colour; and in all appearance, if the person had lived longer, they had turned boney or undergone a petrification.
This uncommon structure of the heart being thus demonstrated, let us endeavour to account for the following phoenomena. The first is the palpitation of the heart, which was the chief symptom and complain of the sick person. The second is the preternatural dilation and enlargement of the left ventricle. It is not improbable but the firm adhesion of the capsula cordis membranosa to the substance of the heart, occasioned that uncommon trembling and throbbing thereof: its free and easy. Motion being hindered by that thick involucrum which surrounded it so close on each side. The learned Dr. Lower, in his elaborate treatise de corde humano gives us such an instance, and explains the palpitation after this manner.
As for the second, viz the dilatation of the left ventricle and muscular bag of the pulmonary vein; that is altogether owing to the ill configuration of the valves we have now described: for as the great artery or aorta arises out of this ventricle, it has three valves which separating give passage to the blood from the ventricle into the vessel; and in a natural state they shut that passage, and so prevent the blood from recoiling into the same, if it should endeavour to return. But in this case, by reason of its contracted narrowness and thickness, not being able to close or shut the passage, the blood flowd back again into the cavity, which it had gradually enlarged, and dilated to the bigness we see. Besides the muscular valves not being duly qualified for the performance of their office, the blood recoiled into the auricle, which it had distended in the like manner. This constant regurgitation or reflux of the blood is besides sufficient of itsself, to produce this extraordinary trembling or ωαλμος χαρδιας6, as the Greeks call it.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 326).

  1. This translates from Latin to English as left ventricle of the heart []
  2. Years after this text was written, James Douglas was apart of a famous investigation which exposed Mary Toft for lying about giving birth to rabbits. []
  3. Deliquium: a failure of vitality; fainting or sinking away []
  4. Franz is accredited as the founder of the 17th century iatrochemical school of medicine - which was structured around the thought that all of life and disease are based upon chemical action. []
  5. Foramen ovale: small hole in the wall between the two upper chambers of the heart. []
  6. Thank you, mircea_popescu: "oalmos hardias". nonsense anyway. but here it is in proper greek alphabet : ωαλμος χαρδιας. []

Full circle

Thursday, December 27th, 2018 <--- Notable words for later.

Twas' the day before Christmas when all of the ticos were inside the house. Not a creature was driving, not even an uber eats louse...

So, the harem agreed on a trip to walk around the Escazu mall, as we finally got a break from the endless car and foot traffic. Can you believe that its been a struggle to find somewhere walkable in this country? The sidewalks are cracked to hell, the bridges out, and the smell of garbage is thick in the air. The traffic is so unbearable that you wont get a mile in thirty minutes. Its been so bad that we have resorted to almost only going out out during the night on weekdays. Most places in the area are also either banned or coming close to it. That being said, the Escazu mall is not yet banned and the shops were closed early for Christmas. It was a pleasant night because we were all of ten people out walking.

Out of the ten people, two were pretty girls wearing short holiday dresses and 7 inch stiletto heels. It's rare to see any girls dressed like this in Costa Rica. If the women are dressed in dresses, they are usually cheap and combined with mismatched shoes. We all know that the states lack a lot, but the illusion of money creates a type of girl that can bimbofy herself when necessary. The aforementioned girls had their faces in their phones - not talking to each other and were positioned on the cement stairs outside of a clothing store. Seeing them sprawled out on the steps and definitely texting about nothing, really made me miss the familiarity of a night out in Chicago.1 These types of nights don't exist anymore and my trance of fantasizing about real night life was broken when I heard the dreaded words of, "go tell those girls' they have nice heels."2 When I get an order with immediate action something in my brain turns off and I'm walking without any sort of plan. I deviate from Master and quickly walk over to the girls, I ask them if they speak English and they do! So, I tell them I like their heels and they look cute. They both exclaim "thank you" in the same high tone as me and they inform me that they are dressed for a party. The final exchange is an easy merry Christmas and goodbye. I felt pretty great when I returned to report on the transaction. I had thought this display counted for a completed order. This illusion was short lived when I was received with an unhappy tone and demand for explanation of why I had returned with nothing. I had no numbers, no invitation to whatever party they were going to, and worse, no attempt was made to try for anything other than the minimum of what was ordered of me. This displeasure was hard for me to accept, I did the thing that was ordered - why was I getting a lecture?! My pride ensured that I had ample excuses for why I thought what I did was correct, and a butthurt me spent the next hour complaining and explaining.

The first excuse that I tried was that, the girls wouldn't have any interest in me. Its true that I was self conscious in my short cheap dress and that I don't have much confidence to go on now as I did in the past. Had I been actually thinking and not coming up with excuses then, I would have applied one of the most prominent lessons from Master and wrongly assumed that they would have any idea about what they want. Its an easy first thought and often used by many on #trilema; however, any time with Mircea Popescu will reinforce that, in fact people don't know what they want unless you tell them and especially twenty something girls. Which brings me to excuse number two... I made the mistake of pleading that this isint the correct way to met people. This defense is constantly on display from idiots on fetlife who missed their chance by imagining that they are entitled to anything3, while also having some neatly place boundaries. Being compared to the masses on fetlife hurts the most. I've always hated that website and the people on it. Even with the scant days here, I thought I had out run the association with fetlife. Agreed, that I'm not smart enough to keep up on #trilema, but its a sad truth to be in the same basket as fetlife weirdos. Hearing that I had given a standard fetlife response was a harsh reminder that in fact, creating some made up illusions has never produced anything for anyone. For my third and final accusation, I proclaimed that I was only sent to speak to them for potential possible fucks. At the very least this is an illogical argument to invalidate the order that was given4. At the very most it's ignorant for me to imply that their is something wrong with wanting things. This is especially true when Master wants something, regardless of whatever it may be. I attacked Master with nonsense, and this while knowing I wouldn't get an inch but still trying. Needless to say, I was immediately crushed for spewing meaningless words and for attempting to argue with him. He was characteristically right about my excuses and the length it would take for my slow brain to realize the details of why I was incorrect5. Luckily for me and for you, lessons always come full circle. Did you take note of the footnote from earlier? You should and I wont forget - the only people worth associating with are the ones who can understand that very art. Being authentic now includes vetting through people who wont understand that they don't actually have a choice when in front of something great.

It's also worth mentioning that Santa would be jealous of how festive and fun a harem Christmas is run. Christmas Eve started with a relaxing trip to the pond to see everyones favorite duck, Chimichurri6. Master kept a close eye on the home made eggnog, while Hannah and I hung the lights so bright and derpy. My lifelong desire of being tied up was finally achieved7, which also included me struggling to free myself while being beat with two objects at once (spoiler: pleading with someone while tied up does not do much of anything). An assortment of food was made and enjoyed, but most importantly - fudge from the country with best chocolate in the world. To my surprise, even slaves get to decorate Christmas cookies (although what are elves, ya know?) and to finish it off we took a three hour hike on Christmas day. I've never been so happy to not have a holiday canceled.

1. Their is something ritualistic about pre-gaming with your friends while doing hair and make up in order to stay out until sunrise. These nights usually ended with someone throwing up and us passed out for a few hours to recover for boozy brunch. Historically, girls turn on this certain charm when they want to be friends with one another. You simply smile a lot, make sure your voice goes higher, and tell the other girl how pretty she is in some kinda way. It seems superficial but for party girls, nothing works better. If the new friendship works out, then you will have a new escort to the restroom, a party location hook up, and another person to get you on the list.
2. I'm often ordered to talk to attractive girls, without question or reason.
3. Yes, things have indeed changed.
4. mircea_popescu: anyway, re invalidate : if A says X, and you say "A only says X because z reason to do with A" you are saying "A's saying X is no grounds for X to be considered"
mircea_popescu: this is attacking A.

5. Let the record show that, it took 2 days for me to realize how wrong I was.
6. Its true that Chimichurri is indeed cooler than most people.
7.If you can laugh at it, you can live with it.

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of November and December, 1715 - Part IV.

Saturday, December 22nd, 2018
IV. A letter of Mr. Francis Nevile to the right Reverend St. George Lord Bishop of Clogher, R.S.S. Giving an account of some large teeth lately dugg up in the North of Ireland, and by his Lordship communicated to the Royal-Society.
Belturbet, July the 29th. 1715.

My Lord,
The curiosity I here send your Lordship, is so far beyond any thing that I have had the honour to communicate to your Lordship, or that I have ever met with, that I presume your Lordship will think it fit to communicate to the Royal-Society; I have sent the draught, after the best manner I could draw it, enclosed; it is the draught of two teeth lately found within eight miles of this town at a place call'd Maghery, in part of the Bishop of Killmore's Lands, sinking the Foundation for a mill near the side of a small brook that parts the countrys of Cavan and Monoghan.
There are in all four teeth, two of a larger and two of a smaller sort, the largest is the farthest tooth in the under jaw, the other is like it and belongs to the opposite side; the lesser tooth I take to be the third or fourth tooth from it, and has its fellow: these are all that were found, and one of them in a piece of the jawbone, which fell to dirt as soon as taken out of the earth; there was part of the skull found also of a very large size and thickness, but as soon as exposed to the air that mouldered away as the jaw had done.
The account I had led me last week to the place, where I was resolved to make the nicest search I could; but the water-wall of the mill being built, and the ground all incumbered with the earth that was thrown up, I could have little opportunity of doing any thing, but to enquire of the workmen the manner of finding the teeth, and where and how they lay. There were some few pieces of bones found, but none entire, yet by those bits were found, or one might guess that they were parts of those that were of a larger size.
The place where this monster lay was this prepared, which makes me believe it had been buried, or that it had lain there since the deluge. It was about four foot under ground, with a little rising above the superficies of the earth, which was a plain under the foot of a hill, and about 30 yards from the brook or thereabout. The bed whereon it lay had been laid with fern, with that sort of rushes here call'd sprits, and with bushes intermixed. Under this was a stiff blew clay on which the teeth and bones were found. Above this was first a mixture of yellow clay and sand much of the same colour; under that a fine white sandy clay which was next to the bedd: the bedd was for the most part a foot thick, and in some places thicker, with a moisture clear through it; it lay sad and close and cut much like turse, and would divide into flakes, thicker or thinner as you would; and in every layer the seed of the rushes was as flash as if new pull'd so that it was in the height of seed-time that those bones were lay'd there. The branches of the fern, in every lay as we open'd them, were very distinguishable, as were the seeds of the rushes and the tops of boughs. The whole matter smelt very sower as it was dug, and tracing it I found it 34 foot long, and about 20 or 22 foot broad.
It will be well worth consideration what sort of a creature this might be, whether human or animal; if human, there was some reason for the interrment, and for that preparation of the bed it was laid on; if animal, it was not worth the trouble: if human, it must be larger than any giant we read of; if animal, it could be no other than an elephant, and we do not find that those creatures were ever the product of this climate. And considering how long this mus t have lain here, I do not believe the inhabitants then had any curiosity or conveniency to bring such into this kingdom; for I suppose the best of their ships could not carry one. Then if an elephant or some other beast which must have proportion to the teeth, it must have lain there ever since the flood; and if so, then the bed on which it lay must be of its own making: whence it will follow that the flood coming on him while he lay in his den, he was there drown'd, and covered with slime or mud, which since is turn'd into the substance of the earth before mention'd. I forgot to mention that there was a great many nutshells found about the bed, perhaps those might have been on the bushes which composed part of the bed.
The two large teeth are of equal weight, two pound three quarters each; the two little teeth are six ounces each; but there are some of them wafted, and some of holders that go into the jaw broken off.

I am,
My Lord,
Your Lordship's most dutiful and obedient servant.
Francis Nevile.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here (this article begins on page 367).

Philosophical Transactions. For the months of June, July, and August, 1715 - Part V.

Monday, December 17th, 2018

V. A Short Account of the cause of the saltness of the ocean, and of the several Lakes that emit no rivers; with a proposal, by help thereof, to discover the age of the world. Produced before the Royal-Society by Edmund Halley, R.S. Secr.

There have been many attempts made and proposals offered, to ascertain from the appearances of nature, what may have been the antiquity of this globe of earth on which, by the evidence of sacred writ. mankind has dwelt about 6000 years; or according to the Septuagint1 above 7000. But whereas we are there told that the formation of man was the last act of the creator, 'tis no where revealed in scripture how long the earth had existed before this last creation, nor how long those five days that preceded it may be to accounted; since we are elsewhere told, that in respect of the almighty a thousand years is as on day, being equally no part of eternity; nor can it well be conceived how those days should be to be understood of natural days, since they are mentioned as measures of time before the creation of the sun, which was not till the fourth day. And 'tis certain Adam found the earth, at his first Production, fully replenished with all sorts of other animals. This enquiry seeming to me well to deserve consideration, and worthy the thoughts of the Royal Society. I shall take leave to propose an expedient for determining the age of world by a medium, as I take it, wholly new, and which in my opinion seems to promise success though the event cannot be judged of till after a long period of time; submitting the same to their better judgment. What suggested this notion was an observation I had made, that all the Lakes in the World, properly so called, are found to be salt, some more some less than the ocean sea, which in the present case may also be esteemed a lake; since by that term I mean such standing waters as perpetually receive rivers running into them, and have no exite or evacuation.
The number of these lakes, in the known Parts of the world is exceeding small, and indeed upon enquiry I cannot be certain there are in all any more than four or five. First, the Caspian Sea2; secondly, the Mare Mortuum or Lacus Asphaltites3; thirdly, the lake on which stands the City of Mexico, and fourthly, the lake of Titicaca in Peru, which by a Channel of about fifty leagues communicates with a fifth and smaller, call'd the Lake of Paria, neither of which have any other exite. Of these the Caspian, which is by much the greatest is reported to be somewhat less salt than the Ocean. The Lacus Asphaltites is so exceedingly salt, that its waters seem fully sated, or scarce capable to dissolve any more; whence in summer-time its banks are incrustated with great quantities of dry salt, of somewhat a more pungent nature than the marine, as having a relish of sal ammoniac; as I was informed by a curious gentleman that was upon the place.
The Lake of Mexico properly speaking is two lakes, divide by the causways that lead to the city, which is built in islands in the midst of the lake, undoubtedly for its security; after the idea, tis probable, its first founders borrowed from their beavers, who build their houses on damms the make in the rivers after that manner. Now that part of the lake which is to the northwards of the town and causways, receives a river of a considerable magnitude, which being somewhat higher than the other, does with a small fall exonerate itself in the southern part, which is lower. Of these the lower is found to be fair, but to what degree I cannot yet learn; through the upper be almost fresh.
And the Lake of Titicaca, being near eighty leagues in circumference, and receiving several considerable fresh rivers, has its waters, by the testimony of Herrera and Asosta, so brackish as not to be potable, though not fully to salt as that of the ocean; and the like they affirm of that of Paria, into which the Lake of Titicaca does in part exonerate itself, and which I doubt not will be found much salter than it, if it were enquired into.
Now I conceive that as all these lakes do receive rivers and have no exite or discharge, so it will be necessary that their waters rise and cover the land, until such time as their surfaces are sufficiently extended, so as to exhale in vapour that water that is poured in by the rivers and consequently that lakes must be bigger or lesser according to the quantity of the fresh they receive. But the vapours thus exhaled are perfectly fresh, so that the saline particles that are brought in by the rivers remain behind, whilst the fresh evaporates and hence 'tis evident that the salt in the lakes will be continually augmented, and the water grow salter and salter. But in lakes that have an exite, as the Lake of Genesaret, or otherwise call'd that of Tiberias4, and the upper Lake of Mexico, and indeed in most others, the water being continually running off, is suppl'd by new fresh river water, in which the saline particles are so few as by no means to be perceived.
Now if this be the true reason of the saltness of these lakes, tis not improbable but that the Ocean itself is become salt from the same cause and we are thereby furnished with an argument for estimating the duration of all things, from an observation of the increment of saltness in their waters. For if it be observed what quantity of salt is at present contained in a certain weight of the water. Water of the Caspian Sea, for example, taken at a certain place, in the dryest weather; and after some centurys of years the same weight of water, taken in the same place and under the same circumstances, be found to contain a sensibly greater quantity of salt than at the time of the first experiment, we may by the rule of proportion, take an estimate of the whole time wherein the water would acquire the degree of saltness we at present find in it.
And this argument would be more conclusive, if by a like experiment a simular encrease5 in the saltness of the ocean should be observed: for that, after the same manner as aforesaid, receives innumerable rivers, all which deposite their saline particles therein; and are again supplyed, as I have elsewhere shown, by the vapours of the ocean, which rise therefrom in atoms of purse water, without the least admixture of salt. But the rivers in their long passage over the earth do imbibe some of the saline particles thereof, though in so small a quantity as not to be perceived, unless in these their depositories after a long tract of time. And if upon repeating the experiment, after another equal number of ages, it shall be found that the saltness is further encreased with the same increment as before, then what is now proposed as hypotheticall would appear little less than demonstrative. But since this argument can be of no use to ourselves, it is requiring very great intervals of time to come to our conclusion, it were to be wished that the ancient Greek and Latin authors had delivered down to us the degree of saltness of the sea, as it was about 2000 Years ago: for then it cannot be doubted that the difference between what is now found and what then was, would become very sensible. I recommend it therefore to the Society, as opportunity shall offer, to procure the experiments to be made of the present degree of saltness of the ocean, and of as many of these lakes as can become at, that they may stand upon record for the benefit of future ages.
If it be objected that the water of the ocean, and perhaps some of these lakes, might at the first beginning of things, in some measure contain salt, so as to disturb the proportionality of the encrease of saltness in them, I will not dispute it: but shall observe that such a supposition6 would by so much contract the age of the world, within the date to be derived from the foregoing argument, which is chiefly intended to refute the ancient notion, some have of late entertained, of the eternity of all things; through perhaps by it the world may be found much older than many have hitherto imagined.

A pdf version of the entire text of the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London can be found here7.

1. Septuagint: earliest translation of the Old Testament from Hebrew to Greek
2. Known as the world's largest lake.
3. or in English - the Dead Sea
4. Or otherwise known as the Sea of Galilee.
5. We should bring back encrease as increase is overrated.
6. Reading long 's' in ocr was more entertaining than you can imagine:
mircea_popescu and yes it was common. they only switched to double short s on words' end sometime late 1700.
nicoleci interesting
nicoleci or should i say, intereFting
mircea_popescu lol
mircea_popescu here : "Girl does not go back to any Old English or Old Germanic form. It is part of a large group of Germanic words whose root begins with a g or k and ends in r. The final consonant in girl is a diminutive suffix. The g-r words denote young animals, children, and all kinds of creatures considered immature, worthless, or past their prime."
mircea_popescu it meant worthless child cca 1300, turned into female child cca 1400, turned to not-yet-mated female by 1500

7. Check the logs for even more information.

TMSR Log Summary - 11/23/2018

Saturday, December 15th, 2018

- Ducks are confirmed as the best pet/easter animal

- Comments are unable to be added to asciilifeform's blog due to captcha

- Mpex had a dns issue

- Bingoboingo provided live updates on the standoff in Barrio Goes

TMSR Log Summary - 11/22/2018

Friday, December 14th, 2018

- Bingoboingo's power went out from the breaker being turned off

- Mircea_popescu and diana_coman discuss a patch on cryptob lib to permit arbitrary size

TMSR Log Summary - 11/21/2018

Thursday, December 13th, 2018

- Hanbot developed a prototype that allows users upload multiple pictures at a time

- Hanbot is further developing the picture uploading prototype to upload multiple pictures by shift selecting the set of files

- The !!subcribe lever is detached from deedbot

- Bingoboingo is having a planned power outage tomorrow

- Mod6 tested his trb keccak tree

TMSR Log Summary - 11/20/2018

Wednesday, December 12th, 2018

- Mircea_popescu and asciilifeform discussed best method (electronic or not) of record keeping for Pizzaro

- The drop in btc has created appreciation of Pizzaro stock

- Trinque is moving the deedbot machine due to its rapid disconnecting

- Mircea_popescu's fetlife bot continues to met less intelligent human bots

- People are still buying into ripple

- Alt coins is an example of how perceived options create problems for people

- Asciilifeform and mircea_popescu discussed what amount of btc is appropriate for USG

- Fetlife girls claimed to expose mircea_popescu on social media - without anyone being able to find the source

- Mircea_popescu and asciilifeform discussed who keeps Argentina's traffic lights running

- Spanish girl athletes have world famous calves and no ass